As nanotechnology has developed over the last two decades, some nanostructures, such as nanotubes, nanowires, and nanoparticles, have become very popular. However, recent research has led to the discovery of other, less-common nanoforms, which often serve as building blocks for more complex structures.
In an effort to organize the field, the Handbook of Less-Common Nanostructures presents an informal classification based mainly on the less-common nanostructures. A small nanotechnological encyclopedia, this book:
The Handbook of Less-Common Nanostructures discusses a classification system not directly related to the dimensionality and chemical composition of nanostructure-forming compounds or composite. Instead, it is based mainly on the less-common nanostructures. Possessing unusual shapes and high surface areas, these structures are potentially very useful for catalytic, medical, electronic, and many other applications.
Introduction to Nanostructures
Methods for Obtaining Nanoparticles and Other Nanostructures
General Remarks on Nanoparticle Fabrication. Examples of Several Important Methods for the Synthesis of Nanoobjects. "Green" Aspects of Nanoparticle Synthesis. References.
Brief Description of Some Classic Nanostructures
Carbon-Based Nanostructures. Conventional Noncarbon Nanostructures. References.
Simple, Linear 1D, 2D, and 3D Nanostructures
Nanolines. Nanopencils. Nanodumbbells. Nanoshuttles. Nanopeapods. Nanopins. Nanochains. Nanobars. Nanowicks. Nanopillars. References.
Various Prolonged 3D Nanostructures
Nanoarrows. Nanobones. Nanobottles. Nanobricks. Nanobowlings and Nanonails. Nanocones. Nanospears. Nanospikes. References.
Circle and Ball-Type Nanostructures
Nanowheels. Nanoeggs. Nanoballs. Nanospheres. Nanograins. Nanorice. References.
Nanocages, Nanoboxes, and Nanocubes. Nanocapsules. References.
Nanotrees. Nanoleaves. Nanoforests. Nanobushes. Nanomushrooms. Nanoflowers. Nanobouquets. Nanodewdrops. Nanoacorns. Nanomulberry. Broccoli-Like Architectures. Nanograsses. Nanokelps. Nanocorns. Nanocactus. Nanospines. Nanosheafs. Nanoonions. References.
Nanolarvae. Nanoworms. Nanosquamae. Nanourchins. References.
Nanobowls. Nanocups. Nanoplates. Nanoforks. Nanospoons. Nanobrooms. Nanobrushes. Nanocarpets. Nanocombs. Nanofans. Nanospindles. Nanotroughs. Nanowebs. Other Rare "Home" Nanostructures. References.
"Nanotechnical" Structures and Devices
Nanosprings/Nanocoils/Nanospirals. Nanoairplanes, Nanopropellers, and Nanowindmills. Nanoboat. Nanosaws. Nanobridges. Nanothermometers. Nanotweezers. Nanocars and Nanotrucks. Nanobalances. Nanogrids. Nanomesh. Nanofoams. Nanojunctions. Nanopaper. Nanobatteries. E-Nose and E-Tongue. References.
Nanostructures Classified as Polyhedra
Nanotriangles. Nanosquares and Nanorectangles. Nanotetrahedra. Nanooctahedra. Nanopyramids. Nanoicosahedra. Nanododecahedra. Nanocuboctahedra. Nanocubes. Nanoprisms. References.
Other Rare Nanostructures
Nanovolcanoes. Nanosponges. Nanostars. Nanoglass Ceramics. Other Nanoobjects. References.
Selected Intriguing Topics in Nanotechnology
Coordination and Organometallic Nanomaterials
Introduction. Coordination Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites. Organometallic Nanomaterials. Nanomaterials Based on Polymers. Coordination Nanomaterials as Precursors. References.
Application of Ultrasound for Obtaining Nanostructures and Nanomaterials
Metal/Alloy-Containing Nanostructures. Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, Diamond, and Fullerenes. Oxide- and Hydroxide-Containing Nanostructures. Metal Salts and Complexes. Polymeric and Macrocyclic Nanostructures/Nanocomposites. Applications in Catalysis and Degradation of Toxic Substances. Applications in Drug Delivery and Tumor Treatments. References.
Inorganic Non-Carbon Nanotubes
Applications of Inorganic Nanotubes. References.
Soluble Carbon Nanotubes
Functionalization by the Use of Elemental Metals, Inorganics, and Grignard Reagents. Functionalization of CNTs in Strong Acidic Media and with Oxygen- Containing Moieties. Functionalization with Compounds Containing Alkyl and Aromatic Moieties. Functionalization with Aliphatic and Aromatic Amine(Amido)-Containing Moieties. Functionalization with Sulfur-Containing Moieties. Functionalization with Macrocycles. Functionalization with the Use of Biomolecules. Functionalization with the Use of Polymers or Their Precursors. Special Techniques in the Synthesis and Purification of Soluble CNTs. Study of Reactivity and Physicochemical Properties of Soluble CNTs. Main Applications of Soluble CNTs. References.
Structure and Properties. Synthesis. Reactivity. Applications. References.
Synthesis Methods for Nanodiamonds. Techniques Applied to Study Structural and Electronic Properties of Nanodiamonds. Some Physical Properties of Nanodiamonds. Chemical Properties and Functionalization of Nanodiamonds. Nanodiamond Films and Composite Materials. Applications. References.
Porphyrin-Containing Fulleropyrrolidines. Fulleropyrrolidines with Sulfur-Containing Groups. Ferrocene-Containing Fulleropyrrolidines. Fulleropyrrolidine Bis- and Tris-Adducts. Enzyme-Containing Fulleropyrrolidines. Polymer-Containing Fulleropyrrolidines. Other Intriguing Fulleropyrrolidines. C70-Pyrrolidines. Carbon Nanotubes, Functionalized with Pyrrolidines. Applied Techniques to Study Fulleropyrrolidines. Applications. Appendix A: Selected Modified Methods of Cycloaddition. References.
Small Fullerenes C20<n<60 and Endohedral Metallofullerenes M@Cn
Stability of Fullerenes Lower Than C60 and Their Spectral and Electronic Properties. Structures of Small Fullerenes. Electronic Transport, Mechanism, and Growth Studies. Synthesis, Sorption, and Encapsulation. Metal (or X = H, Hal, C, BN)–Small Fullerene Endohedral Complexes. References.
Nanomesh and Nanohoneycomb Structures
Nanometals and Nanoalloys
Nanostructured Metals in General. References.
Activated Micro- and Nanostructured Rieke Metals
General Characteristics of Rieke Methods. Synthesis of Highly Reactive Rieke Metal Powders. References.
Bi- and Trimetallic Nanoparticles Based on Gold and Iron
Metallic Iron Core/Au Shell and Alloy Nanoparticles. FexOy /Au Nanoparticles. Trimetallic Nanoparticles on the Fe-Au Basis. References.
Theoretical Calculations. Main Methods of the Synthesis of Nanoalloys. Main Applications of Nanoalloys. References.
Nanostructured Forms of Bismuth
Synthesis of Various Bismuth Nanoforms. Main Properties of Bismuth Nanoforms. Main Applications of Bismuth Nanoforms. References.
Final Remarks (Conclusions and Future Outlook)