Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry: A Practical Guide, Third Edition

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Features

  • Offers new case histories, mainly illustrating treatment and remediation methods
  • Includes new and updated end-of-chapter questions
  • Features new sections on stormwater management and wetlands
  • Includes new material on algae growth and treatment, odor control, and radioisotopes

Summary

Professionals and students who come from disciplines other than chemistry need a concise yet reliable guide that explains key concepts in environmental chemistry, from the fundamental science to the necessary calculations for applying them. Updated and reorganized, Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry: A Practical Guide, Third Edition provides the essential background for understanding and solving the most frequent environmental chemistry problems. Diverse and self-contained chapters offer a centralized and easily navigable framework for finding useful data tables that are ordinarily scattered throughout the literature.

Worked examples provide step-by-step details for frequently used calculations, drawing on case histories from real-world environmental applications. Chapters also offer tools for calculating quick estimates of important quantities and practice problems that apply the principles to different conditions. This practical guide provides an ideal basis for self-study, as well as short courses involving the movement and fate of contaminants in the environment.

In addition to extensive reorganization and updating, the Third Edition includes a new chapter, Nutrients and Odors: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur, two new appendices, Solubility of Slightly Soluble Metal Salts and Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in this Book, and new material and case studies on remediation, stormwater management, algae growth and treatment, odor control, and radioisotopes.

Table of Contents

Water Quality
Defining Environmental Water Quality
Sources of Water Impurities
Measuring Impurities

Contaminant Behavior in the Environment: Basic Principles
Behavior of Contaminants in Natural Waters
What Are the Fates of Different Pollutants?
Processes that Remove Pollutants from Water
Some Major Contaminant Groups and Natural Pathways for their Removal from Water
Chemical and Physical Reactions in the Water Environment
Partitioning Behavior of Pollutants
Intermolecular Forces
Origins of Intermolecular Forces: Electronegativities, Chemical Bonds, and Molecular Geometry
Solubility and Intermolecular Attractions
References

Major Water Quality Parameters and Applications
Interactions Among Water Quality Parameters
pH
Carbon Dioxide, Bicarbonate, and Carbonate
Acidity and Alkalinity
Oxidation–Reduction Potential
Hardness
Dissolved Oxygen
Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand
Solids (Total, Suspended, and Dissolved)
Temperature
Drinking Water Treatment
References

Nutrients and Odors: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur
Nutrients and Odors
Nitrogen: Ammonia, Nitrite, and Nitrate
Phosphorus
Nutrient (N + P) Contamination: The Eutrophication and Algae Problems
Sulfide (S2−) and Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
Odors of Biological Origin in Water (Mostly from Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Products)
References

Behavior of Metal Species in the Natural Environment
Metals in Water
Mobility of Metals in Water/Soil Environments
General Behavior of Dissolved Metals in Water
Adjusting pH to Remove Metals from Water by Precipitation
Your Results May Vary
How ORP Affects the Solubility of Metals
ORP-Sensitive and ORP-Insensitive Metals
Metal Water Quality Standards
Applications
References

Soil, Groundwater, and Subsurface Contamination
Nature of Soils
Soil Profiles
Organic Matter in Soil
Soil Zones
Contaminants Become Distributed in Water, Soil, and Air
Partition Coefficients
Mobility of Contaminants in the Subsurface
Particulate Transport in Groundwater: Colloids
Case Study: Clearing Muddy Ponds
Ion Exchange
Agricultural Water Quality

General Properties of Nonaqueous Phase Liquids and the Behavior of Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids in the Subsurface
Types and Properties of Nonaqueous Phase Liquids
General Characteristics of Petroleum Liquids: The Most Common LNAPL
Behavior of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Subsurface
Formation of Petroleum Contamination Plumes
Estimating the Amount of LNAPL Free Product in the Subsurface
Estimating the Amount of Residual LNAPL Immobilized in the Subsurface
Chemical Fingerprinting of LNAPLs
Simulated Distillation Curves and Carbon Number Distribution Curves
References

Behavior of Dense Nonaqueous Liquids in the Subsurface Phase
DNAPL Properties
DNAPL Free Product Mobility
Testing for the Presence of DNAPL
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
References

Biodegradation and Bioremediation of LNAPLs and DNAPLs
Biodegradation and Bioremediation
Basic Requirements for Biodegradation
Biodegradation Processes
Natural Aerobic Biodegradation of NAPL Hydrocarbons
Determining the Extent of Bioremediation of LNAPL
Bioremediation of Chlorinated DNAPLs
References

Behavior of Radionuclides in the Water and Soil Environment
Introduction
Radionuclides
Emissions and Their Properties
Units of Radioactivity and Absorbed Radiation
Naturally Occurring Radioisotopes in the Environment
Technologies for Removing Uranium, Radium, and Radon from Water
References

Selected Topics in Environmental Chemistry
Treatment of Pollutants in Urban Stormwater Runoff
Water Quality Profile of Groundwater in Coal-Bed Methane Formations
Indicators of Fecal Contamination: Coliform and Streptococci Bacteria
Reusing Municipal Wastewater: The Problem of Pathogens
Oil and Grease Analysis
Quality Assurance and Quality Control in Environmental Sampling
Deicing and Sanding of Roads: Controlling Environmental Effects

Appendices
A Selective Dictionary of Water Quality Parameters and Pollutants
Solubility of Slightly Soluble Metal Salts
Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in this Book
Answers to Selected Chapter Exercises