Handbook of Inland Aquatic Ecosystem Management

Handbook of Inland Aquatic Ecosystem Management

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Features

  • Provides an overview of the background science of inland aquatic water ecosystems, including environmental physics, chemistry, limnology, and ecology
  • Examines the problems that threaten aquatic inland water ecosystems and presents a set of toolboxes for solving them
  • Balances theory with practical applications
  • Includes many examples of management of reservoirs and lakes
  • Contains numerous tables and figures, as well as a 16-page color insert

Summary

Combining background knowledge and practical tools, Handbook of Inland Aquatic Ecosystem Management gives you an overview of how to manage inland waters in a holistic manner. It examines the problems that threaten aquatic inland water ecosystems and presents a set of toolboxes for solving them. The book focuses on lakes, reservoirs, ponds, rivers, wetlands, lagoons, and estuaries, including the predominant freshwater ecosystems as well as saline and brackish ecosystems.

Understand Ecosystem Properties and Ecological Processes

The book consists of two parts. The first part reviews the basic scientific knowledge needed in the environmental and ecological management of aquatic ecosystems, from limnology and ecology of inland water ecosystems to environmental physics and chemistry. It emphasizes the interacting processes that characterize all inland aquatic ecosystems and explains the scientific considerations behind the conservation principles and their applications.

Define the Problems and Quantify Their Sources

The second part of the book presents toolboxes that you can apply to achieve more holistic environmental and ecological management. After an overview of the environmental problems of inland aquatic ecosystems and their sources, the book examines toolboxes to help you identify the problem, namely mass balances, ecological indicators, and ecological models. It also discusses toolboxes that can be used to find an environmental management solution to the problem: environmental technology, cleaner technology, and ecotechnology.

Integrate Science and Practical Toolboxes to Manage Inland Waters More Effectively

This book shows you how to integrate biology, ecology, limnology, and chemistry with the toolboxes in an up-to-date, multidisciplinary approach to environmental management. It provides a powerful framework for identifying ecological mechanisms that interact with global environmental problems threatening inland aquatic ecosystems.

Table of Contents

Part I Limnology and Ecology of Inland Waters

Overview of Inland Aquatic Ecosystems and Their General Characteristics
Introduction: A Short Overview
Reservoirs in Brazil: An Example of Large-Scale Construction of Artificial Aquatic Systems

Lakes and Reservoirs as Ecosystems
Lakes and Reservoirs Have Many Interactive Factors
Pulse Effects in Lakes and Reservoirs
Vertical and Longitudinal (or Horizontal) Processes in Reservoirs and Their Complexity
Differences between Lakes and Reservoirs
External Nutrient Loading and Nutrient Dynamics
Succession in Lakes and Reservoirs
Lake and Reservoir Sedimentation
Shallow Lakes
Future Research Needs for Lakes and Reservoirs as Tools for Advanced Management of These Ecosystems
Eutrophication Problem
Growth of Phytoplankton
Solutions to the Eutrophication Problem
Reservoirs and Lakes as Complex Systems and They Require an Integrated Management Plan

Physical Processes and Circulation in Lakes and Reservoirs
Introduction
Physical Processes
Potential Energy and the Turbulent Kinetic Energy
Transport Process in Lake and Reservoir
Stratification and the Circulation of Lakes and Reservoirs and the Ecological Processes
Classification of Lakes
Reservoirs
Lake Morphometry and Lake Forms

Rivers as Ecosystems
Physical Characteristics: Horizontal Gradients
Biogeochemical Cycles
Aquatic Biota of Rivers
Energy Flux and Food Chains
Large Rivers
River Fisheries
Small Creeks and Streams
Ecological, Economical, and Social Importance of the Rivers: The Hydrosocial Cycle
Human Impacts on River Ecosystems

Estuaries and Coastal Lagoons as Ecosystems
Introduction
Classification and Zonation of Estuaries
Environmental Factors
Aquatic Biota of the Estuaries
Freshwater Inflow into Estuaries
Primary Production in Estuaries and Coastal Lagoons
Anthropogenic Impacts on Estuaries

Wetlands
Introduction: The Importance of Wetlands
Ecosystem Services by Wetlands
Types of Wetlands and Wetland Processes
Constructed Wetlands
Natural Wetlands

Tropical Freshwater Ecosystems
Tropical Lakes and Floodplains of the South American Continent
Continental Waters of Tropical Africa
Floodplains and Wetlands in Asia
Tropical Freshwater Environments

Freshwater Temperate Lakes and Reservoirs
Introduction
English Lake District
Laurentian Great Lakes in North America
Japanese Lakes
Reservoirs in Temperate Regions

Application of the Conservation Principles
Mass Conservation: An Important Basic Principle
Threshold Levels
Steady State and Equilibrium
Basic Concepts of Mass Balances
Mass Conservations in a Food Chain
Hydrological Cycle

Application of Aquatic Chemistry in Environmental Management I: Calculations of Equilibria
Equilibrium Constant
Activities and Activity Coefficients
Mixed Equilibrium Constant
Classification of Chemical Processes and Their Equilibrium Constants
Many Simultaneous Reactions
Henry’s Law
Adsorption
Biological Concentration Factor

Application of Aquatic Chemistry in Environmental Management II: Equilibrium Calculations of the Four Types of Reactions
Double Logarithmic Diagrams Applied on Acid–Base Reactions
Molar Fraction, Alkalinity, and Buffer Capacity
Dissolved Carbon Dioxide
Precipitation and Dissolution: Solubility of Hydroxides
Solubility of Carbonates in Open Systems
Solubility of Complexes
Stability of the Solid Phase
Complex Formation
Environmental Importance of Complex Formation
Conditional Constant
Application of Double Logarithmic Diagrams to Determine the Conditional Constants for Complex Formation
Redox Equilibria: Electron Activity and Nernst’s Law
pe as Master Variable
Examples of Relevant Processes in the Aquatic Environment
Redox Conditions in Natural Waters
Construction of pe–pH Diagrams
Redox Potential and Complex Formation

Future of Limnology and Aquatic Ecology as a Tool for Management of Inland Waters
Our Demand to Limnology and Aquatic Ecology

Part II Holistic, Environmental and Ecological Management

Impacts on Watersheds and Inland Aquatic Ecosystems
Environmental Problems, Their Sources, and Evaluation of Impacts
Impacts
Impacts of Climatic Change on Aquatic Ecosystems

Integrated Ecological and Environmental Management
Introduction
Ecological and Environmental Management Procedure
Tool Boxes Available Today to Develop an Ecological–Environmental Diagnosis
Tool Boxes Available Today to Solve the Environmental Problems
Follow the Recovery Process
Implementation of the Presented Ecological and Environmental Management Procedure in Practice on Inland Water Ecosystems
Conclusions about Integrated Environmental and Ecological Management of Inland Water Ecosystems

Application of Environmental Technology in the Environmental and Ecological Management
Introduction
Wastewater Treatment: An Overview
Municipal Wastewater
Combinations of Methods for the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater (Reduction of BOD5)
Methods for the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater (Reduction of Phosphorus Concentration)
Methods for the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater (Reduction of Nitrogen Concentration)

Application of Cleaner Technology in Environmental and Ecological Management
Introduction
Application of Life Cycle Analyses and Cleaner Technology
Recycling and Reuse: Green Tax

Application of Ecotechnology in Ecosystem Management of Inland Waters
Ecotechnology: Definition and Classification
Application of Class 1 and Class 2 Methods in Ecotechnology
Ecotechnology: Restoration Methods
Selection of the Most Appropriate Methods or Combination of Methods in Environmental and Ecological Management: A Conclusion of Chapters 14 through 17
Example to Illustrate the Selection of Pollution Abatement Methods
Conclusions

Application of Ecological Indicators in Environmental Management of Freshwater Ecosystems
Introduction
Tools to Synthesize and Overview: Models and Indicators
Ecological Indicators: Application and Classification
Emergy and Exergy
Selection of Ecological Indicator
Case Study

Application of Ecological Models in Management of Aquatic Inland Ecosystems
Models as Tools in Ecological Management
Institutionalized or Mediated Modeling
Model Selection
Models as a Strong Management Tool: Problems and Possibilities
Eutrophication Models
Toxic Substance Models
Acidification Models
Wetland Models
Fisheries Models
Structurally Dynamic Models

Index

Chapters include references.

Author Bio(s)

Sven Erik Jørgensen is a professor of environmental chemistry at University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. He is an honorable doctor of science at Coimbra University, Portugal, and at Dar es Salaam University, Tanzania. In 2004 and 2005, Dr. Jørgensen was awarded the prestigious Stockholm Water Prize, the Prigogine Prize, and the Einstein Professorship by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In 2007, he received the Pascal medal and was elected a member of the European Academy of Sciences.

Jose Galizia Tundisi is a retired professor of environmental sciences at the University of São Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil. He currently serves as president of the International Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management, a nonprofit organization at São Carlos. He also serves as full professor of environmental quality at University Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. He has served as a consultant in 40 countries in water and resource management, and limnology, aquatic biology, and watershed management.

Takako Matsumura Tundisi is a retired professor of ecology at the Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil. She currently serves as scientific director of the International Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management, a nonprofit organization at São Carlos. She developed several projects in limnology of tropical lakes and reservoirs and coordinated a large-scale study of 220 reservoirs in São Paulo State for the Biota-FAPESP program. Since 1999, she has been chief editor of the Brazilian Journal of Biology.

Editorial Reviews

"... a book on the subject of lakes and reservoirs is extremely welcome today when fast global changes, including urbanization, global commerce, and climate, are posing—and will pose in the near future—greater stress in our hydrologic systems. The authors present the subject in such a way that the reader will learn not only fundamentals of limnology but also the behavior of lakes and reservoirs both from a physicochemical and an ecosystemic point of view. The book relies on several examples from projects developed by the authors on the ground. This is something that professionals working in this field will benefit significantly from ..."

—Benedito Braga, Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo, Brazil

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