Dopants and Defects in Semiconductors covers the theory, experimentation, and identification of impurities, dopants, and intrinsic defects in semiconductors. The book fills a crucial gap between solid-state physics and more specialized course texts.
The authors first present introductory concepts, including basic semiconductor theory, defect classifications, crystal growth, and doping. They then explain electrical, vibrational, optical, and thermal properties. Moving on to characterization approaches, the text concludes with chapters on the measurement of electrical properties, optical spectroscopy, particle-beam methods, and microscopy.
By treating dopants and defects in semiconductors as a unified subject, this book helps define the field and prepares students for work in technologically important areas. It provides students with a solid foundation in both experimental methods and the theory of defects in semiconductors.
Electrons and Holes
Examples of Semiconductors
Structure and Symmetry
Examples of Native Defects
Examples of Nonhydrogenic Impurities
The Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) Junction
Crystal Growth and Doping
Bulk Crystal Growth
Dopant Incorporation during Bulk Crystal Growth
Thin Film Growth
Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE)
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)
Doping by Diffusion
Annealing and Dopant Activation
Wave Function Symmetry
Donor and Acceptor Wave Functions
Carrier Concentrations as a Function of Temperature
Defect Vibrational Modes
Interactions and Lifetimes
Wave Functions and Symmetry
Oxygen in Silicon and Germanium
Impurity Vibrational Modes in GaAs
Hydrogen Vibrational Modes
Free-Carrier Absorption and Reflection
Exciton and Donor–Acceptor Emission
Charge State and Chemical Potential
Microscopic Mechanisms of Diffusion
Resistivity and Conductivity
Methods of Measuring Resistivity
P-n and Schottky Junctions
Capacitance–Voltage (C–V) Profiling
Carrier Generation and Recombination
Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS)
Minority Carriers and Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS)
Minority Carrier Lifetime
Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)
Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR)
Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR)
Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS)
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)
Perturbed Angular Correlation Spectroscopy (PACS)
Microscopy and Structural Characterization
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) Microscopy
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM)
References appear at the end of each chapter.
Matthew D. McCluskey is a professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy and Materials Science Program at Washington State University. He earned a Ph.D. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley. His research interests include defects in semiconductors, materials under high pressure, shock compression of semiconductors, and vibrational spectroscopy.
Eugene E. Haller is a professor in the Graduate School at the University of California, Berkeley. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and earned a Ph.D. in solid state and applied physics from the University of Basel. His research areas include far-infrared detectors, isotopically controlled semiconductors, semiconductor nanocrystals, and semiconductor growth, characterization, and processing.
… well written, with clear, lucid explanations …
The scientific development towards the method of controllable doping transformed the erratic and not reproducible family of semiconductor materials into the truly wonderful basis of modern microelectronics. This book tells the remarkable success story and I recommend it!
—Hans J. Queisser, Max-Planck-Institute, Stuttgart, Germany
McCluskey and Haller have written an outstanding modern guide to this field that will be useful to newcomers, and also to active researchers who want to broaden their horizons, as a means to learn the capabilities and limitations of the many techniques that are used in semiconductor-defect science.
—Professor Michael J. Stavola, Lehigh University
This clearly written text about defects in macroscopic semiconductor materials comprehensively bridges the gap between basic science courses and research-level reviews: a must for workers new to the field.
—Professor Gordon Davies, King’s College London