Biotechnology Fundamentals

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Features

  • Includes information on current research trends
  • Covers novel medical genetics topics such as intra-uterine insemination
  • Discusses the process of biotech product development, with suitable examples
  • Examines ethical issues within biotechnology research and product development (e.g. embryonic stem cells, cloning, gene therapy, and GM crops)
    • Includes learning objectives for each chapter, in addition to problems, lab assignments, references, and ancillary online resources
    • Suggests field trips that can be used to apply and better understand concepts and other material in the book

    Solutions manual available with qualifying course adoption

    Summary

    The focus of Biotechnology Fundamentals is to educate readers on both classical and modern aspects of biotechnology and to expose them to a range of topics, from basic information to complex technicalities. Other books cover subjects individually, but this text offers a rare topical combination of coverage, using numerous helpful illustrations to explore the information that students and researchers need to intelligently shape their careers.

    Keeping pace with the rapid advancement of the field, topics covered include:

    • How biotechnology products are produced
    • Differences between scientific research conducted in universities and industry
    • Which areas of biotechnology offer the best and most challenging career opportunities
    • Key laboratory techniques and protocols employed in the field

    The contents of this book are derived from discussions between teachers and undergraduate students and designed to address the concepts and methods thought useful by both sides. Starting with the fundamentals of biotechnology, coverage includes definitions, historical perspectives, timelines, and major discoveries, in addition to products, research and development, career prospects, ethical issues, and future trends.

    The author explains that even before it had been classified as its own field, biotechnology was already being applied in plant breeding, in vitro fertilization, alcohol fermentation, and other areas. He then delves into new developments in areas including stem cell research, cloning, biofuels, transgenic plants, genetically modified food/crops, pharmacogenomics, and nanobiotechnology. Incorporating extensive pedagogy into the content, this book provides plenty of examples, end-of-chapter problems, case studies, and lab tutorials to help reinforce understanding.

    Table of Contents

    Introduction to Biotechnology

    What Is Biotechnology?

    Animal Biotechnology

    Agricultural Biotechnology

    Medical Biotechnology

    Industrial Biotechnology

    Environmental Biotechnology

    Other Emerging Fields of Biotechnology

    History of Biotechnology

    Human Genome Project

    Major Scientific Discoveries in Biotechnology

    Biotechnology as the Science of Integration

    Bio-Revolution

    Ethical and Regulatory Issues in Biotechnology

    Future of Biotechnology


    Genes and Genomics

    Introduction

    Cell as the Building Block of Life

    Classification of Cells

    Extracellular Organization

    Intracellular Organization

    Macromolecules

    Genes and Genetics

    Cell Division

    DNA Replication

    DNA Interactions with Proteins

    DNA-Modifying Enzymes

    DNA Methylation

    DNA Mutation

    Tools of Biotechnology


    Proteins and Proteomics

    Introduction

    Significance of Proteins

    Protein Biosynthesis

    Protein Structure

    Protein Folding

    Protein Modification

    Protein Transport

    Protein Dysfunction and Degradation

    Regulation of Protein Synthesis

    Regulatory Protein

    Methods for Protein Analysis

    Protein Purification

    Tools of Proteomics


    Recombinant DNA Technology

    Introduction

    Making of Recombinant DNA

    Significance of Recombinant DNA Technology

    Role of Restriction Enzymes in rDNA Technology

    Steps in Gene Cloning

    Synthesis of Complete Gene

    Polymerase Chain Reaction and Gene Cloning

    Significance of Vectors in rDNA Technology

    Classification of Vectors

    Integration of the DNA Insert into the Vector

    Introduction of the Recombinant DNA into the Suitable Host

    Increased Competence of E. coli by CaCl2 Treatment

    Infection by Recombinant DNAs Packaged as Virions

    Selection of Recombinant Clones

    Identification of Clones Having Recombinant DNAs

    Selection of Clone Containing a Specific DNA Insert

    Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology

    DNA Sequencing

    Microarrays

    DNA Chips

    Isolation of Desired DNA

    cDNA Library

    Preparation of cDNA

    Genomic Library

    DNA Libraries

    Chemical Synthesis Gene

    Applications of Synthetic Oligonucleotides


    Microbial Biotechnology

    Introduction

    Structural Organization of Microbes

    Microbial Metabolism

    Microbial Growth

    Microbial Genetics

    Genetic Recombination in Bacteria

    Transposable Genetic Elements

    Use of E. coli in Microbial Cloning

    Pathogenic Bacteria

    Application of Microbes

    Food Microbiology

    Microbial Biotechnology


    Agricultural Biotechnology

    Introduction

    Plant Breeding

    Plant Diseases

    Applications of Molecular and Genetic Tools in Agriculture

    Herbicide-Tolerant Plants

    Pigmentation in Transgenic Plants

    Altering the Food Content of Plants

    Gene Transfer Methods in Plants

    Target Cells for Gene Transformation

    Vectors for Gene Transfer

    Transformation Techniques Using Agrobacterium

    β-Glucuronidase GUS Gene

    Agroinfection and Gene Transfer

    DNA-Mediated Gene Transfer

    Electroporation for Gene Transfer

    Liposome-Mediated Gene Transfer

    Gene Transformation Using Pollen

    Application of Transgenic Plants

    How Safe Are Transgenic Plants?

    Bioengineered Plants

    Genetically Modified Maize

    Terminator Technology


    Animal Biotechnology

    Introduction

    History of the Use of Animals in Research

    Drug Testing in Animals is Mandatory

    Application of Animal Models

    Animal Models

    Animal Biotechnology

    Biotechnology and Fish Farming

    Regulations of Animal Testing


    Environmental Biotechnology

    Introduction

    Factors Affecting the Environment

    Environment Protection by Biotechnology


    Medical Biotechnology

    Introduction

    Antibody Production

    Therapeutic Proteins

    Stem Cell Transplantation

    Bioengineered Skin

    Bioengineered Organ Transplantation

    Gene Therapy

    Molecular Diagnostics

    Artificial Blood

    Organ Transplant

    Cloning


    Nanobiotechnology

    Introduction

    Nanotechnology

    Nanobiotechnology

    Applications of Nanobiotechnology

    Nanotechnology in the Food Industry

    Water Pollution and Nanotechnology

    Research Trends


    Product Development in Biotechnology

    Introduction

    Methods of Scientific Enquiry

    Commercialization of Scientific Discovery

    Business Plan

    Biotechnology Product Development

    Phases of Biotechnology Product Development

    Biotechnology Entrepreneurship

    Biotechnology Industry: History and Facts

    Formation of a New Biotechnology Company

    Successful Bioentrepreneurship

    Biotechnology Products and Intellectual Property Rights

    Biotechnology Stock Investment: Pros and Cons

    Marketing Trends in Biotechnology

    Role of Regulators in Biotechnology Product Development

    Certification and Accreditation


    Industrial Biotechnology

    Introduction

    Fermenter or Bioreactor

    Principle of Fermentation

    Production of Biomolecules Using Fermenter Technology

    Development Process of Microbial Products

    Upstream Bioprocess

    Downstream Bioprocess

    Bioprocess Automation

    Industrial Application of Microbes

    Industrial Production of Healthcare Products


    Ethics in Biotechnology

    Introduction

    Genetically Modified Foods and Plants

    Use of Animals as Experimental Models

    Use of Humans as Experimental Models

    Xenotransplantation

    Genetic Screening

    Biometrics

    DNA Fingerprinting

    Organ Donation and Transplantation

    Euthanasia

    Neuroethics

    Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Embryonic Stem Cell Research

    Human Cloning


    Careers in Biotechnology

    Introduction

    Education and Investment in Biotechnology

    Research and Development in Biotechnology

    Biotechnology Industry and Products

    Biotechnology Status in the United States

    Career Opportunities in Biotechnology

    Entry-Level Job Positions in Biotechnology

    Administration

    Which Job Is Good for Me?

    Why Are R&D Jobs the Most Challenging?

    Salary and Incentives in Biotechnology


    Laboratory Tutorials

    Laboratory Experiments

    Laboratory Safety

    Good Laboratory Practices for Biotechnology Labs

    General Laboratory Techniques

    General Principles of Animal Handling

    Animal Anesthesia

    Animal Histology

    Blood Collection in Animals

    Histology and Microscopy

    Separation Techniques

    Microbiology Techniques

    Biochemistry Techniques

    Molecular Techniques

    Genetic Techniques

    Agricultural Biotechnology

    Microbial Biotechnology


    Glossary

    Author Bio(s)

    Dr. Firdos Alam Khan is chairperson of the department of biotechnology at Manipal University in Dubai. He received his doctoral degree in the field of neuroscience from Nagpur University, India and has more than 15 years of research and teaching experience in various domains of biotechnology. His area of specialty in biotechnology includes stem cell technology, pharmacology, and neuroscience. He did his first postdoctoral research from Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India and his second postdoctoral training from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA. He also worked with Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, California, USA on a Parkinson’s’ research project. He later joined Reliance Life Sciences Mumbai, India and worked on adult and embryonic stem cell projects. He has written numerous articles in various national and international journals in the areas of neuroscience, neuropharmcology and stem cell biology. He has filed several patents in the field of stem cell technology in India, Europe, and USA, and he has been associated with international scientific organizations including the International Brain Research Organization in France and the Society for Neuroscience in the U.S. He has also been a presenter at more than 20 different international conferences in places including India, China, Thailand, and the United States.