Using classic thermodynamic principles as the point of departure, this new edition of a popular resource supplies the understanding and tools required to measure process efficiency and sustainability with much improved accuracy. Exploring the driving forces in the chemical and power industries, Efficiency and Sustainability in the Energy and Chemical Industries: Scientific Principles and Case Studies, Second Edition investigates why losses occur and explains how to reduce such losses.
Numerous case studies, examples, and problems illustrate the thermodynamic analysis of process performance to explain how to effectively analyze and optimize work flows and environmental resources. The authors compare the present industrial society with an emerging one in which mass production and consumption are in harmony with the natural environment through closure of material cycles. In this second edition, the book’s structure of Basics, Thermodynamic Analysis of Processes, Case Studies, and Sustainability has been unaffected, but a few additions have been made.
New and updated information includes:
Complete with the keys to a quantification of process efficiency and sustainability, this cutting-edge resource is the ideal guide for those engaged in the transition from fossil-based fuels to renewable and sustainable energy sources using low-waste procedures.
The System and Its Environment
States and State Properties
Processes and Their Conditions
The First Law
The Second Law and Boltzmann
The Second Law and Clausius
Change in Composition
The Structure of a Thermodynamic Application
Energy "Consumption" and Lost Work
The Carnot Factor
Lessons from a Heat Exchanger
Lost Work and Entropy Generation
Entropy Generation: Cause and Effect
On Forces and Flows: Cause and Effect
Cause and Effect: The Relation between Forces and Flows
Limited Validity of Linear Laws
Reduction of Lost Work
A Remarkable Triangle
Carnot Revisited: From Ideal to Real Processes
Finite-Time, Finite-Size Thermodynamics
The Principle of Equipartitioning
THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF PROCESSES
Exergy, a Convenient Concept
The Convenience of the Exergy Concept
Example of a Simple Analysis
The Quality of the Joule
Example of the Quality Concept
Exergy of Mixing
Cumulative Exergy Consumption
Global Energy Consumption
Global Exergy Flows
Exergy or Lost Work Analysis
Electric Power Generation
Coal Conversion Processes
Thermodynamic Analysis of Gas Combustion
Steam Power Plant
Gas Turbines, Combined Cycles, and Cogeneration
Propane, Propylene, and Their Separation
The Ideal Column: Thermodynamic Analysis
The Real Column
Exergy Analysis with a Flow Sheet Program
Polyethylene Processes: A Brief Overview
Exergy Analysis: Preliminaries
Results of the HP LDPE Process Exergy Analysis
Process Improvement Options
Results of the Gas-Phase Polymerization Process Exergy Analysis
Process Improvement Options
A Note on Life Cycle Analysis
Life Cycle Analysis Methodology
Life Cycle Analysis and Exergy
Nature as an Example of Sustainability
A Sustainable Economic System
Toward a Solar-Fueled Society: A Thermodynamic Perspective
Thermodynamic Criteria for Sustainability Analysis
Efficiency and Sustainability in the Chemical Process Industry
Lost Work in the Process Industry
Efficient Use of High-Quality Resources
CO2 Capture and Sequestration
The Carbon Cycle
Carbon Sequestration: Separation and Storage and Reuse of CO2
Carbon Capture Research
Geologic Sequestration Research
Carbon Tax and Cap-and-Trade
Sense and Nonsense of Green Chemistry and Biofuels
Principles of Green Chemistry
How Green Are Green Plastics
Biofuels: Reality or Illusion?
Solar Energy Conversion
"Lighting the Way"
The Creation of Wind Energy
Photovoltaic Energy Conversion
Hydrogen: Fuel of the Future?
The Hydrogen Economy
Current Hydrogen Economy
Conventional Hydrogen Production from Conventional Sources
Hydrogen from Renewables
Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier
Hydrogen as a Transportation Fuel
Efficiency of Obtaining Transportation Fuels
Challenges of the Hydrogen Economy
Hydrogen Production: Centralized or Decentralized?
Fuel Cells as a Possible Alternative to Internal Combustion
Costs of the Hydrogen Economy
Changing Opinions on Investment
Each chapter includes an "Introduction", "Concluding remarks", and "References"
Jakob de Swaan Arons received his MSc and PhD degrees from the Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. He spent some 20 years with Shell International, before he was appointed to the chair of Applied Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria at Delft University of Technology. He is an elected member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, and an honorary professor of the Beijing University of Chemical Technology, China. From 2003 to 2009, he served as chair in the chemical engineering department of Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Much of his inspiration was drawn from his many visits to Japan and its research centers. He received the Hoogewerff Gold Medal for his lifetime contributions to process technology in 2006.
Krishnan Sankaranarayanan received his MSc at Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands and his PhD at Princeton University, New Jersey. At Delft, he did an extensive study of the energy effi ciency of the polyolefi n industry, for which activity DSM acted as host. He is currently group head reactor engineering and mixing at ExxonMobil Research and Engineering, Fairfax, Virginia.
Hedzer J. van der Kooi received his MSc and PhD degrees from Delft University of Technology and specialized in phase equilibria. In the last decade, he worked closely together with Sankaranarayanan on the subject of this book, assisted by many students. He is currently active in the Department of Architecture at Delft University of Technology.
"The authors have written a much needed textbook, appropriate for chemical, mechanical, process, and environmental engineers. … Overall, the text is highly readable and the authors have done an excellent job at combining a difficult subject (thermodynamics) with an area that eludes quantification due to its complexity (the environment). … It is a highly recommended read."
-Polymer News, 2005, Vol. 30
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