An evolving, living organic/inorganic covering, soil is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere above, the biosphere within, and the geology below. It acts as an anchor for roots, a purveyor of water and nutrients, a residence for a vast community of microorganisms and animals, a sanitizer of the environment, and a source of raw materials for construction and manufacturing. To develop lasting solutions to the challenges of balanced use and stewardship of the Earth, we require a fundamental understanding of soil—from its elastic, porous three-phase system to its components, processes, and reactions.
Handbook of Soil Sciences: Resource Management and Environmental Impacts, Second Edition is the second of two volumes that form a comprehensive reference on the discipline of soil science. Completely revised and updated to reflect the current state of knowledge, this volume covers interfacial interactions between the physical, chemical, and biological regimes within the soil; the factors that control the availability of plant nutrients and microelements; interdisciplinary aspects of soil science, including salinity, sodicity, and soil erosion; and soil databases for assessing worldwide soil resources.
Critical elements addressed in each section include:
This cohesive handbook provides a thorough understanding of soil science principles and practices based on a rigorous, complete, and up-to-date treatment of the subject matter compiled by leading scientists. It is a resource rich in data, offering professional soil scientists, agronomists, engineers, ecologists, biologists, naturalists, and students their first point of entry into a particular aspect of the soil sciences.
Soil Physical, Chemical, and Biological Interfacial Interactions
Introduction; Pan Ming Huang and Antonio Violante
The Role of Synchrotron Radiation in Elucidating the Biogeochemistry of Metal(loids) and Nutrients at Critical Zone Interfaces; Donald L. Sparks and Matthew Ginder-Vogel
Clay–Organic Interactions in Soil Environments; Guodong Yuan and Benny K.G. Theng
Nanoscale Science and Technology in Soil Science; Patricia A. Maurice
Impacts of Environmental Nanoparticles on Chemical, Biological, and Hydrological Processes in Terrestrial Ecosystems; Nikolla P. Qafoku
Enzymatic Activity as Inf luenced by Soil Mineral and Humic Colloids and Its Impact on Biogeochemical Processes; L. Gianfreda, M.A. Rao, and M. Mora
Biogeochemical, Biophysical, and Biological Processes in the Rhizosphere; Philippe Hinsinger, Davey L. Jones, and Petra Marschner
Mineralogical, Physicochemical, and Microbiological Controls on Soil Organic Matter Stabilization and Turnover; Ingrid Kögel-Knabner and Markus Kleber
Impact of Soil Physical, Chemical, and Biological Interactions on the Transformation of Metals and Metalloids; Antonio Violante, M. Pigna, V. Cozzolino, and Pan Ming Huang
Soil Physicochemical and Biological Interfacial Processes Governing the Fate of Anthropogenic Organic Pollutants; Kun Yang and Baoshan Xing
Impact of Soil Physicochemical and Biological Reactions on Transport of Nutrients and Pollutants in the Critical Zone; Jon Chorover
Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition
Introduction; James J. Camberato
Bioavailability of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and Si; Nanthi Bolan, Ross Brennan, Dedik Budianta, James J. Camberato, Ravi Naidu, William L. Pan, Andrew Sharpley, Donald L. Sparks, and Malcolm E. Sumner
Soil Acidity and Liming; T. Jot Smyth
Soil Fertility Evaluation; J. Thomas Sims and Joshua McGrath
Fundamentals of Fertilizer Application; David B. Mengel and George W. Rehm
Nutrient and Water Use Efficiency; Kefyalew Girma and William Raun
Nutrient Interactions in Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition; William L. Pan
Interdisciplinary Aspects of Soil Science
Introduction; G.J. Levy
Saline and Boron-Affected Soils; R. Keren
Sodicity; Guy J. Levy
Soil Water Repellency; Stefan H. Doerr and Richard A. Shakesby
Biogeochemistry of Wetlands; P.W. Inglett, K.R. Reddy, W.G. Harris, and E.M. D’Angelo
Acid Sulfate Soils; L.A. Sullivan, R.T. Bush, E.D. Burton, C.J. Ritsema, and M.E.F. van Mensvoort
Water Erosion; Dino Torri and Lorenzo Borselli
Wind Erosion; D.W. Fryrear
Land Application of Wastes; David M. Miller and W.P. Miller
Conservation Tillage; Paul W. Unger and Humberto Blanco-Canqui
Soil Quality; Stephanie A. Ewing and Michael J. Singer
Introduction; Marion F. Baumgardner
Qualitative and Quantitative Aspects of World and Regional Soil Databases and Maps; Freddy O. Nachtergaele, Vincent W.P. van Engelen, and Niels H. Batjes
United States Soil Survey Databases; Jim R. Fortner and Alan B. Price
Integrated Digital, Spatial, and Attribute Databases for Soils in Brazil; Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri, Carlos Gustavo Tornquist, Martial Bernoux, Miguel Cooper, Gerd Sparovek, Maria de Lourdes Mendonça-Santos, and Carlos Clemente Cerri
Development and Use of Soil Maps and Databases in China; Gan-Lin Zhang and Yun-Jin Wu
Soil Geographic Database of Russia; Sergey A. Shoba, Vyacheslav A. Rozhkov, Irina O. Alyabina, Varvara M. Kolesnikova, Inga S. Urusevskaya, Erik N. Molchanov, Vladimir S. Stolbovoi, Boris V. Sheremet, and Dmitry E. Konyushkov
Learning about Soil Resources with Digital Soil Maps; Darrell G. Schulze, Phillip R. Owens, and George E. Van Scoyoc
Soil Databases in Africa; D.G. Paterson and N.M. Mushia
Dr. Pan Ming Huang was the professor of soil science emeritus at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, and served for 44 years in that institution. His research work has significantly advanced the frontiers of knowledge on the formation chemistry, nature, and surface reactivity of mineral colloids, organic matter, and organomineral complexes in soils and sediments and their role in the dynamics, transformations, and fate of nutrients, toxic metals, and xenobiotics in terrestrial and aquatic environments. His research findings, embodied in well over 300 refereed scientific publications, are fundamental to the development of sound strategies for managing land and water resources in the Earth’s critical zone.
Dr. Yuncong Li is the University of Florida Research Foundation (UFRF) professor of soil science in the Department of Soil and Water Science at the Tropical Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), University of Florida in Homestead. He is also an affiliated professor at the University of Florida’s Center for Tropical Agriculture, Hydrologic Sciences Academic Cluster, School of Natural Resources and Environment, and Water Institute. His research and extension program focuses on water and soil quality monitoring, assessment and remediation, management practices to improve nutrient use efficiency, and nutrient cycling in soils/sediments. He has authored or coauthored over 150 research papers, 70 extension articles, and 15 book chapters. He recently edited a book, Water Quality Concepts, Sampling, and Analyses (CRC Press, 2010). He serves as an associate editor for Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology and Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis.
Dr. Malcolm E. Sumner is the Regents’ Professor of Environmental Soil Science Emeritus in the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences at the University of Georgia, Athens. His published works cover a wide range of topics, including subsoil acidity, the agricultural uses of gypsum, diagnosis of yield-limiting factors, beneficial use of anthropogenic wastes, and transport of nutrients in soils. A widely respected author, Dr. Sumner’s works include Soil Acidity (Springer-Verlag, 1991), Soil Crusting: Chemical and Physical Processes (Lewis Publishers, 1992), Suelos de la Agroindustria Cafetalera de Guatemala (University of Georgia, 1994), Distribution, Properties and Management of Australian Sodic Soils (CSIRO Publications, 1995), Sodic Soils: Distribution, Properties, Management, and Environmental Consequences (Oxford University Press, 1998), and the Handbook of Soil Sciences (CRC Press, 1999). He has authored or coauthored over 350 scientific papers, including 220 refereed journal articles, and has contributed chapters to over 30 books.