Consumers demand quality milk with a reasonable shelf-life, a requirement that can be met more successfully by the milk industry through use of improved processes and technologies. Guaranteeing the production of safe milk also remains of paramount importance. Improving the Safety and Quality of Milk provides a comprehensive and timely reference to best practice and research advances in these areas. Volume 1 focuses on milk production and processing. Volume 2 covers the sensory and nutritional quality of cow's milk and addresses quality improvement of a range of other milk-based products.
The opening section of Volume 1: Milk production and processing introduces milk biochemistry and raw milk microbiology. Part two then reviews major milk contaminants, such as bacterial pathogens, pesticides and veterinary residues. The significance of milk production on the farm for product quality and safety is the focus of Part three. Chapters cover the effects of cows' diet and mastitis, among other topics. Part four then reviews the state-of-the-art in milk processing. Improving the quality of pasteurised milk and UHT milk and novel non-thermal processing methods are among the subjects treated.
With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Improving the Safety and Quality of Milk, Volume 1 will be an essential reference for researchers and those in industry responsible for milk safety and quality.
PART 1: KEY REQUIREMENTS FOR MILK QUALITY AND SAFETY
Milk biochemistry; Kelly, University College Cork, Ireland and L Bach Larsen, University of Aarhus, Denmark
Introduction. Milk composition and constituents. Indigenous enzymes in milk. The secretion of milk. Factors affecting milk composition and processing properties. Conclusions. References.
The microbiological safety of raw milk; M Griffiths, University of Guelph, Canada
Microbial contamination of milk. Pathogens and milk. Limitations of raw milk testing as an indicator of safety. Outbreaks of illness associated with the consumption of raw milk. Routes of transmission of foodborne pathogens. Antimicrobial properties of milk. References.
Key requirements for milk quality and safety: A processor's perspective; K Burgess, Dairy Crest, UK
Introduction. Key elements of the processor's perspective. Basic requirements: essentials of the contract to supply milk. Beyond the basic milk contract: additional requirements. A vehicle for future quality and safety improvement: farm assurance programmes. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Identifying pathogens in milk; B Stessl and I Hein, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Austria
Overview of milkborne pathogens. Regulatory aspects in Europe, US and elsewhere. Current techniques for the detection of milkborne pathogens and their limitations. New techniques for the detection of milkborne pathogens. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Pesticides, veterinary residues and other contaminants in milk; S K Nag, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, India
Introduction. Pesticide residues and other chemical contaminants in milk and their potential impact on health. Pesticide residues. Heavy metal pollution in milk. Radionuclides. Veterinary drug residues. Mycotoxins. Nitrates and nitrites. Detergents and disinfectants. References.
Contaminants in milk: routes of contamination, analytical techniques and methods of control; S K Nag, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, India
Introduction. Sources of contamination. Analytical techniques. Regulatory aspects. Management of contaminants. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Good hygienic practice in milk production and processing;M C te Giffel and M H J Wells-Bennik, NIZO food research, The Netherlands
Introduction. The principal hazards. Good hygienic practice. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Exploiting genetic variation in milk-fat composition of milk from dairy cows; J A M van Arendonk, H J F van Valenberg and H Bovenhuis, Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands
Introduction. The Dutch milk genomics initiative. Mean milk fat composition in winter and summer. Genetic variation between cows. Molecular genetics. Exploiting variation in fatty acid composition. Conclusions. References.
Cows' diet and milk composition; O Harstad, Norwegian University of Life Sciences and H Steinshamn, Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Norway
Introduction: cow's diet and milk composition. Diet and nutritional quality of milk. Milk fat content and composition. Milk protein content and composition. Content of vitamins. Content of minerals. Conclusions and practical implications. References.
Mastitis and raw milk quality, safety and yield; J Hamann, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Germany
Introduction. Effects of mastitis on raw milk quality, safety and yield. Causes of mastitis. Mastitis control. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Quality assurance schemes on the dairy farm; O Cerf, Alfort Veterinary School, J-M Gautier and P Parguel, Livestock Institute, France
Introduction. Standards of the international standardization organization. Standards of the codex alimentarius commission. Guides of the food and agriculture organization. Guides of the international dairy federation. National and specific guides. Conclusions. References.
Improving pasteurised and extended shelf-life milk; M Lewis, University of Reading, UK
Introduction. History of pasteurisation of milk. Major changes over the last fifty years. Pasteurisation equipment. Determinants of keeping quality. Further issues during pasteurisation. Pasteurisation of other milk-based products. Legislation and control. Extended shelf-life milk. Conclusions. References.
Improving UHT processing and UHT milk products; H Deeth, University of Queensland, Australia
Introduction. UHT processing: definition and principles. Microbiological aspects. UHT processing: methods and characteristics. Changes in milk during UHT processing. Changes in UHT milk during storage. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Modelling heat processing of dairy products; N Hotrum, M Fox, H van Lieverloo, E Smit and P de Jong, NIZO food research, M Schutyser, Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands
Introduction to optimisation of heat processing of milk. Modelling: focus on process, product, and costs. Deterministic modelling approaches. Case study: application of deterministic modelling to milk sterilisation. Stochastic modelling approaches. Case study: application of stochastic modelling to milk pasteurisation. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Removal of bacteria, spores and somatic cells from milk by centrifugation and microfiltration techniques; G Gesan-Guiziou, INRA - Agrocampus Ouest, France
Introduction. Centrifugation. Microfiltration. Conclusions. Sources of further information and advice. References.
High pressure processing of milk; T Huppertz, NIZO food research, The Netherlands
Introduction. High pressure processing: principles and technologies. Effect of high pressure on the constituents of milk. Effects of high pressure on micro-organisms in milk. Shelf-life of high pressure treated milk. Processing characteristics of high pressure-treated milk. Future trends. References.
Pasteurization of milk with pulsed electric fields; G Barbosa-CÃ¡novas and D Bermudez-Aguirre, Washington State University, USA
Introduction: key issues. Principles of the technology. Pulsed electric fields processing equipment. Microbial inactivation. Modeling microbial inactivation. Enzyme inactivation. Overall quality of milk. Shelf-life extension of milk. Drawbacks and limitations. Conclusions. References.
Other novel milk preservation technologies: ultrasound, irradiation, microwave, radio frequency, ohmic heating, ultraviolet light and bacteriocins; G Barbosa-Canovas and D Bermudez-Aguirre, Washington State University, USA
Introduction. Novel technologies for improving quality and their effectiveness. Ultrasound. Irradiation. Microwave. Ohmic heating. Ultraviolet light. Other available technologies. Conclusions. References.
Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) and other food safety systems in milk processing; S Murphy, Cornell University, USA
Introduction. Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) background. Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) in milk processing. Other food safety systems. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Mansel Griffiths is Professor of Food Science at the University of Guelph, Canada and Director of the Canadian Research Institute for Food Safety. He is well known for his work on the microbiological safety of food.