Biomechanics of the Upper Limbs

Biomechanics of the Upper Limbs: Mechanics, Modeling and Musculoskeletal Injuries, Second Edition

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Features

  • Provides numerous examples in each chapter
  • Features downloadable Power Point slides, sample exams, and other background material on a supporting website
  • Includes an instructor's manual with complete solutions
  • Contains end-of-chapter references to enhance further study

Summary

There is already a wealth of literature covering cumulative trauma disorders and medical management, as well as the biomechanics of manual material handling and lower back problems. However, despite a spike in the number of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) in the upper limbs—due to a sharp increase in the amount of computer-related jobs—few if any books have focused exclusively on WRMSDs, until now.

Biomechanics of the Upper Limbs: Mechanics, Modeling and Musculoskeletal Injuries, Second Edition offers vital information and tools to improve analysis of external forces and their effects on the human body. This can help ergonomists better understand job stressors and the role they play in the development of disorders, enabling them to modify the work environment and educate practitioners to better control harmful situations.

Using the author’s medical and engineering expertise to distill essential subject matter and useful technical data, this comprehensive text explores:

  • Biomechanics of the upper limbs and the motor control system
  • The structure and physiology of the human musculoskeletal and neuromuscular systems
  • Recent research findings and solutions to various ergonomic problems
  • Models of various components of the neuromuscular systems, as well as larger systems in the upper limbs
  • Risk factors for disorders and tools used to identify their causes

Designed as a textbook for a typical semester-long graduate-level engineering or kinesiology course, this book includes a link to an ancillary website that offers materials such as PowerPoint® slides, sample exams, and an instructor's manual with complete solutions. It also serves as a practical, up-to-date, engineering-oriented resource for researchers, industrial ergonomists, industrial hygienists, and medical professionals who require supplementary material.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Biomechanics
What Is Biomechanics?
Basic Concepts
Coordinate Systems
Force Vector Algebra
Static Equilibrium
Anthropometry and Center of Mass Determination
Friction
Dynamics

Structure of the Musculoskeletal System
Gross Overview of Movements
Skeletal System
Mechanical Properties of Bone
Soft Connective Tissue
Joints

Neuromuscular Physiology and Motor Control
Introduction to Musculature
Structure of Muscle
Basic Cell Physiology
Nervous System
Excitation–Contraction Sequence
Motor Units
Basic Muscle Properties (Mechanics)
Energy, Metabolism, and Heat Production
Receptors
Reflexes and Motor Control

Modeling of Muscle Mechanics
Laplace Transforms and Transfer Functions
Viscoelastic Theory
Hill’s Muscle Models
Frequency Analysis
Frequency Analysis of Passive Muscle
Hatze’s Multielement Model
Applications of the Hatze Muscle Model
Control Theory and Motor Control
Root-Locus Approach to Muscle Modeling

Models of the Upper Limbs
Anatomy of the Hand and Wrist
Static Tendon-Pulley Models
Dynamic Tendon-Pulley Models
Complex Tendon Models
Two-Dimensional Hand Model
Direct Measurement Validation Studies
Critical Evaluation of Modeling Approaches

Musculoskeletal Disorders and Risk Factors
Extent of the Problem
Common Musculoskeletal Disorders and Their Etiology
Medical Diagnosis and Treatment of MSDs
Epidemiologic Approach to MSDs
Scientific Research and Evidence for Occupational Risk Factors
Scientific Research and Evidence for Psychosocial Risk Factors
Iatrogenesis: A Contrarian View
Legal Issues

Instrumentation
Introduction
Wrist- and Finger-Motion Measurements
Pressure- and Force-Distribution Measurements
Nerve-Conduction Measurements
Electromyography

Job and Worksite Analysis
The Need for Job Analysis
Reliability and Validity of Assessment Tools
Initial Identification of Musculoskeletal Injury Problems
Gross Posture and Task Analyses
Quantitative Upper Limb WRMSD Risk-Assessment Tools
Data-Driven Upper Limb WRMSD Risk Index

Hand Tools
Introduction
General Biomechanical Considerations of Tools
Handles for Single-Handled Tools
Handles for Two-Handled Tools
Other Tool Considerations
Agricultural and Forestry Tools
Industrial Tools

The Office Environment
General Musculoskeletal Problems
Seated Workplace
Keyboard
Mouse and Other Cursor-Positioning Devices
Notebooks and Handheld PCs
Interventions for Office Work

 
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