This book offers an important updated to Horrocks and Price’s Fire retardant materials. It provides the reader with a comprehensive account of the advances that have occurred in fire science in relation to materials. The manufacture of fire retardant materials is an active area of research, the understanding of which can improve safety, as well as the marketability of a product. Part 1 includes a short overview of the fundamentals of fire hazards and risks. Part 2 reviews recent advances of fire retardancy in specific materials. Part 3 is dedicated to specific applications within the field. The book provides essential information for all those concerned with fire retardancy.
A R Horrocks and D Price, University of Bolton, UK
PART 1 ADVANCES IN FIRE RETARDANT MATERIALS
Flame Retardancy Of Textiles: New Approaches
S Bourbigot, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille (ENSCL), France
Introduction. Developments in assessing levels of flame retardancy of textiles. Flame retardant natural fibres. Flame retardant synthetic fibres. Flame retardant inorganic man-made fibres. Future trends. References.
Developments In Phosphorus Flame Retardants
S V Levchik, Supresta LLC, USA and E D Weil, Polytechnic University of Brooklyn, USA
Introduction. Main types of phosphorus flame retardants. Polycarbonate and its blends. Polyesters and nylons. Epoxy resins. Polyurethane foams. Polyolefins. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. Conclusions. References.
Halogen-Free Flame Retardants
Y -Z Wang, Sichuan University, China
Introduction. Challenges posed by replacing halogen-containing flame retardants. Attempts at successful halogen replacement in special applications. Flame retardancy and anti-dripping properties. Flame retardancy and mechanical properties. Further trends. Acknowledgements. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Nanocomposites I: Current Developments In Nanocomposites As Novel Flame Retardants
C A Wilkie, Marquette University and A B Morgan, University of Dayton Research Institute, USA
Introduction. Brief history of polymer nanocomposites in flame retardancy applications. Nanoparticles for polymer nanocomposite use. Polymer nanocomposite formation. Polymer nanocomposite flammability – measured effects without conventional flame retardants. Mechanism of flammability reduction. Polymer nanocomposites combined with conventional flame retardants. Applications of flame retardant polymer nanocomposites. Future trends and conclusions. Acknowledgement. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Nanocomposites II: Potential Applications Of Nanocomposite-Based Flame Retardant Systems
A R Horrocks, University of Bolton, UK
Introduction. Applications and processing challenges for nanocomposite polymers. Potential application areas. Future trends. References.
Flame Retardant/Resistant Textile Coatings And Laminates
A R Horrocks, University of Bolton, UK
Introduction. Main types of fire retardant/resistant coatings and laminates. Halogen replacement in back-coated textile formulations. Role of nanoparticles. Introduction of volatile phosphorus-containing species. Novel or smart ways of introducing flame retardant coatings to textiles and laminates. Plasma-initiated coatings. References.
Environmentally-Friendly Flame Resistant Textiles
P J Wakelyn, National Cotton Council of America, USA
Introduction. Key environmental/ecotoxicological issues. Desirable properties of environmentally-friendly flame retardant chemicals. Examples of potentially environmentally-friendly flame retardant applications for cotton-based textiles. Potentially environmentally-friendly flame retardant applications for mattresses, edclothes and upholstered furniture. Inherently flame retardant fibres. Risk management, risk mediation and risk reduction. Future trends. Acknowledgement. References.
Recycling And Disposal Of Flame Retardant Materials
A Castrovinci, University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland, M Lavaselli, Centro di Cultura per l’Ingegneria delle Materie Plastiche and G Camino, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Introduction. Recycling. Directives on recycling of flame retarded materials. Recyclability of flame retarded polymers. Conclusions. References.
PART 2 TESTING, REGULATION AND ASSESSING THE BENEFITS OF FIRE RETARDANT MATERIALS
Challenges In Fire Testing: A Tester’s Viewpoint
M L Janssens, Southwest Research Institute, USA
Introduction. Type I flammability tests. Type II.A flammability tests. Type II.B flammability tests. Challenges in assessing material flammability. Use of material flammability tests. Limitations of material flammability tests. Future trends in material flammability assessment. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Challenges In Fire Testing: Reaction To Fire Tests And Assessment Of Fire Toxicity
T R Hull, University of Central Lancashire, UK
Introduction. Fire testing: principles and problems. Fire resistance tests. Reaction to fire tests. Measurement of heat release. Fire toxicity. Future trends: prediction of fire behaviour from material properties and models of fire growth. Sources of further information and advice. References.
New And Potential Flammability Regulations
J Troitzsch, Fire and Environmental Protection Service, Germany
Introduction: overview of present fire safety regulations in Europe. Buildings. Fire testing of construction products in the European Union. Fire safety requirements and tests for electrical engineering and electronics (E&E) equipment. Fire safety requirements and tests for rail, automotive and marine transport. Fire safety requirements and tests in furniture. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Life Cycle Assessment Of Consumer Products With A Focus On Fire Performance
M Simonson and P Anderson, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden
Introduction. Life cycle assessment (LCA). Television case study. Cable case study. Furniture case study. Conclusions. Future trends. References.
PART 3 APPLICATIONS OF FIRE RETARDANT MATERIALS
The Risks And Benefits Of Flame Retardants In Consumer Products
A M Emsley and G C Stevens, University of Surrey, UK
Introduction. The importance of understanding risks and benefits. Primary risks of flame retardants in consumer products. Balance of risk. Benefits of flame retardants in consumer products. Differentiating the effects of smoking and smoke alarm trends. Future trends. Sources of information and advice. References.
Composites Having Improved Fire Resistance
B K Kandola and E Kandare, University of Bolton, UK
Introduction. Composites and their constituents. Key issues and performance requirements for different sectors. Flammability of composites and their constituents. Fire retardant solutions. Mechanical property degradation during and after fire. Post fire mechanical performance of fire retardant composites. Future trends. References.
Improving The Fire Safety Of Road Vehicles
M M Hirschler, GBH International, USA
Introduction. Regulatory requirements. United States fire loss statistics. State of the art of regulation and guidelines. Activities of United States National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) hazard and risk hazard committee. 2007 Draft of National Fire Protection Association Guide 556. Alternate approach. Conclusions. References.
Firefighters’ Protective Clothing
H Mäkinen, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Finland
Introduction. Different tasks and requirements for fire and heat protection. Types and design of clothing required for protection. Materials used in firefighters clothing. Measuring flame and thermal performance. Future trends. References. Appendix: Standards.
Fire Protection In Military Fabrics
S Nazare, University of Bolton, UK
Introduction. Fire hazards. Military burn injuries. Clothing protection for military personnel. Existing flame retardant solutions for military uniforms. Flame retardant textiles: military applications. Types of military clothing. Testing standards and methodologies. Performance standards and durability requirements. Future trends. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Flame Retardant Materials For Maritime And Naval Applications
U Sorathia, Naval Surface Warfare Center, USA
Introduction. Fire threat. Fire safety regulations. Methods of reducing flammability. Fibre-reinforced plastics (FRPs). Fire performance and test methods for fibre-reinforced plastics. Summary. Sources of further information and advice. References.
Materials With Reduced Flammability In Aerospace And Aviation
R E Lyon, Federal Aviation Administration, USA
Introduction. History of aircraft fire regulations. Materials used in commercial aircraft. Fire test methods for aircraft materials. Future trends. Acknowledgements. References.