Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment

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Features

  • Illustrates the need for a shift to renewable energy through discussions on energy use and the order of magnitude estimates for the lifetime of fossil fuels
  • Examines the design of wind turbines
  • Explores different kinds of wind turbines, including utility-scale wind farms, small wind turbines, distributed systems, wind-diesel systems, and wind hybrid systems
  • Discusses the interconnection of wind turbines to utility grids, regulations on installation and operation, and environmental concerns
  • Presents important economic considerations for the development of wind farms
  • Provides an abundance of examples that highlight the real-world advantages of wind energy over fossil fuels
  • Includes end-of-chapter problems with solutions at the back of the book

Summary

Due to the mounting demand for energy and increasing population of the world, switching from nonrenewable fossil fuels to other energy sources is not an option—it is a necessity. Focusing on a cost-effective option for the generation of electricity, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment covers all facets of wind energy and wind turbines.

The book begins by outlining the history of wind energy, before providing reasons to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. After examining the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, and turbulence, it discusses the measurement and siting of individual wind turbines and wind farms. The text then presents the aerodynamics, operation, control, applications, and types of wind turbines. The author also describes the design of wind turbines and system performance for single wind turbines, water pumping, village systems, and wind farms. In addition, he explores the wind industry from its inception in the 1970s to today as well as the political and economic factors regarding the adoption of wind as an energy source.

Since energy cannot be created nor destroyed—only transformed to another form—we are not encountering an energy crisis. Rather, we face an energy dilemma in the use of finite energy resources and their effects on the environment, primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels. Wind Energy explores one of the most economical solutions to alleviate our energy problems.

Table of Contents

Introduction

History

Wind Farms

Small Systems

Links

References

Energy

Philosophy

Definition of Energy and Power

Fundamentals Concerning Energy

Energy Dilemma in Light of the Laws of Thermodynamics

Exponential Growth

Use of Fossil Fuels

Nuclear

Mathematics of Exponential Growth

Lifetime of a Finite Resource

Summary

Links

References

General

Questions/Activities

Order of Magnitude Estimates

Problems

Wind Characteristics

Global Circulation

Extractable Limits of Wind Power

Power in the Wind

Wind Shear

Wind Direction

Wind Power Potential

Turbulence

Wind Speed Histograms

Duration Curve

Variations in Wind Power Potential

Wind Speed Distributions

General Comments

Links

References

Questions/Activities

Problems

Wind Resource

United States

European Union

Other Countries

Ocean Winds

Instrumentation

Data Loggers

Wind Measurement for Small Wind Turbines

Links

References

Problems

Wind Turbines

Drag Device

Lift Device

Orientation of the Rotor Axis

Description of the System

Aerodynamics

Control

Energy Production

Calculated Annual Energy

Innovative Wind Systems

Applications

Storage

Links

References

Problems

Design of Wind Turbines

Introduction

Aerodynamics

Mathematical Terms

Drag Device

Lift Device

Aerodynamic Performance Prediction

Measured Power and Power Coefficient

Construction

Evolution

Small Wind Turbines

References

Problems

Electrical

Fundamentals

Generators

Power Quality

Electronics

Lightning

Resistance Dump Load

Links

References

Problems

Performance

Measures of Performance

Windstats

Wind Farm Performance

Wake Effects

Enertech

Bergey Excel

Water Pumping

Wind-Diesel and Hybrid

Blade Performance

Comments

Links

References

Problems

Siting

Small Wind Turbines

Wind Farms

Digital Maps

Geographic Information Systems

Wind Resource Screening

Numerical Models

Micrositing

Ocean Winds

Summary

Links

References

Geographic Information Systems

Problems

Applications and Wind Industry

Utility Scale

Small Wind Turbines

Distributed Systems

Wind-Diesel

Village Power

Water Pumping

Wind Industry

Comments

Links

References

Problems

Institutional

Avoided Costs

Utility Concerns

Regulations on Installation and Operation

Environment

Politics

Incentives

Externalities

Transmission

Links

References

Problems

Economics

Factors Affecting Economics

General Comments

Economic Analysis

Life Cycle Costs

Present Worth and Levelized Costs

Externalities

Wind Project Development

Hybrid Systems

Summary

Future

Links

References

Problems

Wind Solutions