Handbook of Advanced Dielectric, Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric Materials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications

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Features

  • Covers the latest developments in advanced dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric materials
  • Discusses topics such as high strain high performance piezo- and ferroelectric single crystals
  • Explores novel processing and new materials as well as novel properties of ferroelectrics and related materials
  • Reviews recent research on materials, their properties, and potential applications
  • Summary

    This comprehensive volume covers the latest developments in advanced dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric materials. Divided into eight parts, it explores high strain high performance piezo- and ferroelectric single crystals, electric field-induced effects and domain engineering, morphotropic phase boundary-related phenomena, high power piezoelectric and microwave dielectric materials, nanoscale piezo- and ferroelectrics, piezo- and ferroelectric films, novel processing and materials, and novel properties of ferroelectrics and related materials. Each chapter looks at key recent research on these materials, their properties, and potential applications.

    Table of Contents

    PART 1: HIGH STRAIN HIGH PERFORMANCE PIEZO- AND FERROELECTRIC SINGLE CRYSTALS

    Bridgman growth and properties of PMN-PT single crystals
    P Han, J Tian and W Yan, H C Materials Corporation, USA
     - Introduction
     - Crystal growth
     - Imperfection
     - Property characterization
     - Optimization of cut directions
     - Conclusions and future trends
     - Appendix
     - References

    Flux growth and characterization of PZN-PT and PMN-PT single crystals
    L-C Lim, National University of Singapore, Singapore
     - Introduction
     - Flux-growth of PZN-PT and PMN-PT single crystals
     - Effect of flux composition
     - Growth of relaxor crystals of low PT contents – PZN-(4-7)%PT
     - Flux growth of relaxor single crystals of high PT contents - PMN-(28-34)%PT
     - Other commonly encountered problems
     - Properties of flux-grown PZN-PT and PMN-PT single crystals
     - Comparison with reported property values
     - Future trends
     - Conclusions
     - Acknowledgement
     - References

    Recent developments and applications of PiezoCrystals
    W S Hackenberger, J Luo, X Jiang, K A Snook and P W Rehrig, TRS Technologies, USA and S Zhang and T R Shrout, Pennsylvania State University, USA
     - Introduction
     - Crystal growth and characterization of relaxor piezoelectrics
     - Dynamic performance of piezoelectric crystals with frequency and dc bias
     - Single crystal piezoelectric actuators
     - Single crystal piezoelectric transducers
     - Conclusions and future trends
     - References

    Piezoelectric single crystals for medical ultrasonic transducers
    S M Rhim, Humanscan Co. Ltd, M C Shin and S-G Lee, IBULe Photonics Co. Ltd, Korea
     - Introduction
     - Piezoelectric single crystals
     - Single crystal transducers
     - Conclusions and future trends
     - References

    High performance, high-TC piezoelectric crystals
    S Zhang, Pennsylvania State University, J Luo, TRS Technologies Inc., D W Snyder Electro-Optics Center and T R Shrout, Pennsylvania State University, USA
     - Introduction
     - Background on the growth of relaxor-PT single crystals
     - Modification of PMNT single crystals
     - Relaxor-PT systems with high curie temperature
     - High TC bismuth based perovskite single crystals
     - Non-perovskite piezoelectric single crystals
     - Summary
     - Future trends
     - Acknowledgment
     - References

    Development of high performance piezoelectric single crystals by using solid-state single crystal growth (SSCG) method
    H Y Lee, Sunmoon University, Korea
     - Introduction
     - Solid-state crystal growth (SSCG) process
     - Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of BZT, PMN-PT, and PMN-PZT single crystals
     - Conclusions and future trends
     - References

    xPbTiO3 solid solution- Piezo- and ferroelectric (1-x)Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3 system
    Y Bing, University of Washington, USA and Z-G Ye, Simon Fraser University, Canada
     - Introduction
     - Synthesis, structure, xPbTiO3- morphotropic phase diagram and properties of the 1x)Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3 solid solution ceramics
     - Growth and characterization of relaxor xPbTiO3 single- ferroelectric Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3 and (1x)Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3 crystals
    -  - Properties of Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3 and (1-x)Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3 xPbTiO3 single crystals
     - Concluding remarks and future trends
     - References

    High-Curie Temperatures Piezoelectric Single Crystal of the Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Ternary Materials System
    Y J Yamashita and Y Hosono, Toshiba Research Consulting Co. Ltd., Japan
     - Introduction
     - PIMNT Ceramics
     - PIMNT Single crystals grown by the flux method
     - PIMNT and PSMNT Single crystals grown by the Bridgman method
     - Future trends
     - Conclusions

    PART 2: FIELD-INDUCED EFFECTS AND DOMAIN ENGINEERING

    Full set material properties and domain engineering principles of ferroelectric single crystals
    W Cao, Pennsylvania State University, USA
     - Introduction
     - Technical challenges and characterization methods
     - Complete set of material properties for a few compositions of PMN-PT and PZN-PT single crystals
     - Correlation between single domain and multidomain properties and the principle of property enhancement in domain engineered ferroelectric single crystals
     - Summary
     - References

    Domain wall engineering in piezoelectric crystals with engineered domain configuration
    S Wada, University of Yamanashi, Japan
     - Introduction
     - History of engineered domain configuration
     - Effect of engineered domain configuration on piezoelectric property
     - Crystal structure and crystallographic orientation dependence of BaTiO3 crystals with various engineered domain configurations
     - Domain size dependence of BaTiO3 crystals with engineered domain configurations
     - Role of non-180° domain wall region on piezoelectric properties
     - New challenge of domain wall engineering using patterning electrode
     - New challenge of domain wall engineering using uniaxial stress-field
     - What is domain wall engineering?
     - Conclusions and future trends
     - Acknowledgements
     - References

    Enhancement of piezoelectric properties in perovskite crystals by thermally, compositionally, electric field and stress induced instabilities
    D Damjanovic, M Davis and M Budimir, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology – EPFL, Switzerland
     - Introduction
     - Deformation of perovskite crystals under external fields
     - Anisotropy of a free energy and piezoelectric enhancement
     - Final remarks
     - References

    Electric-field-induced domain structures and phase transitions in PMN-PT single crystals
    V H Schmidt and R R Chien, Montana State University, USA and C-S Tu, Fu Jen Catholic University, China
     - Introduction
     - Experimental methods
     - Polarizing microscopy as applied to perovskite-structure crystals
     - Thermal stability of various PMN-PT compositions
     - Field-dependent domain structures of various PMN-PT compositions
     - Field-poling effect of optical properties
     - Relation of results to Landau free energy
     - Conclusions

    Energy analysis of field induced phase transitions in relaxor-based piezo- and ferroelectric crystals
    T Liu and C S Lynch, , The Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
     - Introduction
     - Background
     - Multi-field induced phase transitions
     - Energy analysis of phase transitions
     - Discussion
     - Concluding remarks and future trends
     - Acknowledgement
     - References

    PART 3: MORPHOTROPIC PHASE BOUNDARY AND RELATED PHENOMENA

    From the structure of relaxor to the structure of MPB systems
    J-M Kiat, Laboratoire Léon Brillouin and B Dkhil, Ecole Centrale Paris, France
     - Introduction
     - The Historical Context
     - Structure of archetypal relaxors PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 (PMN) and PbSc1/2Nb1/2O3 (PSN)
     - Toward the MPB: substitution of Titanium
     - Stability of the MPB phases under external and internal field
     - Conclusions and future trends
     - Acknowledgments
     - References

    Size effects on the macroscopic properties of the relaxor-ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 solid solution
    M Algueró, J Ricote, P Ramos and R Jiménez, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Spain, J Carreaud, J-M Kiat, B Dkhil, Ecole Centrale Paris, France, J Holc and M Kosec, Institute Jozef Stefan, Slovenia
     - Introduction
     - Size effects in ferroelectrics
     - The relaxor-ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 solid solution
     - Processing of submicron- and nanostructured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ceramics
     - Size effects on the macroscopic properties of 0.8 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.2PbTiO3
     - Size effects on the macroscopic properties of 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3
     - Final remarks and future trends
     - References

    PART 4: HIGH POWER PIEZOELECTRIC AND MICROWAVE DIELECTRIC MATERIALS

    Loss mechanisms and high power piezoelectric components
    K Uchino, Micromechatronics Inc, USA, J H Zheng, Y Gao, S Ural, S-H Park and N Bhattacharya, Pennsylvania State University, USA and S Hirose, Yamagata University, Japan
     - Introduction
     - General consideration of loss and hysteresis in piezoelectrics
     - Losses at a piezoelectric resonance
     - Heat generation in piezoelectrics
     - Loss anisotropy
     - High power piezoelectric ceramics
     - High power piezoelectric components
     - Summary and conclusions
     - Future trends
     - Acknowledgement
     - References

    Bismuth-based pyrochlore dielectric ceramics for microwave applications
    H Wang and X Yao, Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
     - Introduction
     - Crystal structures in BZN system
     - Phase equilibrium and phase relation of BZN pyrochlores
     - Dielectric properties of BZN pyrochlores
     - Potential RF and microwave applications
     - Summary and future trends
     - Acknowledgement
     - References

    PART 5: NANOSCALE PIEZO- AND FERROELECTRICS

    Ferroelectric nanostructures for device applications
    J F Scott, Cambridge University, UK
     - Introduction
     - Ferroelectric nano-structures
     - Self-patterning
     - Magnetoelectrics and magnetoelectric devices
     - Toroidal and circular ordering of ferroelectric domains ferrroics
     - Electron emission from ferroelectrics
     - Base-metal-electrode capacitors
     - Electrocaloric cooling for main-frames and MEMs
     - Interfacial phenomena
     - Phased-array radar
     - Focal-plane arrays
     - Ferroelectric superlattices
     - Ultra-thin single crystals
     - Summary
     - Future trends
     - Futher reading
     - References

    Domains in ferroelectric nanostructures from first principles
    I Kornev, University of Arkansas, USA and Novgorod State University, Russia, B-K Lai, I Naumov, I Ponomareva, H Fu and L Bellaiche, University of Arkansas, USA
     - Introduction
     - Methods
     - Domains in ferroelectric thin films
     - Domains in one-dimensional and zero-dimensional ferroelectrics
     - Conclusions
     - Acknowledgement
     - References

    Nanosized ferroelectric crystals.
    I Szafraniak, Poznan University of Technology, Poland, M Alexe and D Hesse, Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Germany
     - Introduction
     - Preparation of nanoislands
     - The physical properties of the nanoislands
     - Conclusions and future trends
     - Acknowledgments
     - References

    Nano- and micro-domain engineering in normal and relaxor ferroelectrics
    V Y Shur, Ural State University, Russia
     - Introduction
     - Main experimental stages of the domain structure evolution during polarization
     - Reversal in normal ferroelectrics
     - Materials and experimental conditions
     - General consideration
     - Domain growth: from quasi-equilibrium to highly non-equilibrium
     - Self-assembled nanoscale domain structures
     - Modern tricks in nanoscale domain engineering
     - Polarisation reversal in relaxors
     - Conclusions and future trends
     - Acknowledgements
     - References

    Interface control in 3D ferroelectric nano-composites
    C Elissalde and M Maglione, University of Bordeaux, France
     - Introduction
     - Interface defects and dielectric properties of bulk ferroelectric materials
     - Interdiffusion in bulk ceramics and composites
     - Summary and future trends
     - References

    PART 6: PIEZO- AND FERROELECTRIC FILMS

    Single crystalline PZT Films and the impact of extended structural defects on the ferroelectric properties
    I Vrejoiu, D Hesse and M Alexe, Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Germany
     - Introduction
     - Pulsed laser deposition of epitaxial ferroelectric oxide thin films
     - Epitaxial ferroelectric oxide thin films and nanostructures with extended structural defects
     - Single crystalline PbTiO3 and PZT 20/80 films free from extended structural defects
     - Comparison of ferroelectric properties of PZT 20/80 films with and without extended structural defects
     - Summary
     - References

    Piezoelectric thick films for MEMS application
    Z Wang, W Zhu and J Miao, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
     - Introduction
     - A composite coating process for preparing thick film on silicon wafer
     - Characterization of spin-coated thick films
     - Piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (pMUT) based on thick PZT film
     - Microfabrication of thick film pMUT
     - Performances of thick film pMUT
     - Summary
     - Future perspective
     - References

    Symmetry engineering in ferroelectric thin films
    B Noheda, University of Groningen, The Netherlands and G Catalan, University of Cambridge, UK
     - Introduction
     - Recent developments in ferroelectric thin films
     - Size effects
     - Heterogeneous thin films: superlattices and gradients
     - Symmetry and ferroelectric properties: polarization rotation and lattice softening
     - Strain effects on ferroelectric thin films
     - Conclusion and Future trends
     - Further reading
     - Acknowledgements
     - References

    PART 7: NOVEL PROCESSING AND NEW MATERIALS

    Processing of textured piezoelectric and dielectric perovskite-structured ceramics by reactive-templated grain growth method
    T Kimura, Keio University, Japan
     - Enhancement of piezoelectric properties of perovskite-structured ceramics by texture formation
     - Reactive-templated grain growth method
     - Selection of reactive templates
     - Factors determining texture development
     - Application to solid solutions
     - Conclusions and future trends
     - References

    Grain orientation and electrical properties of bismuth layer-structured ferroelectrics
    T Takenaka, Tokyo University of Science, Japan
     - Introduction
     - Bismuth layer-structured ferroelectrics [BLSF]
     - Grain Orientation and hot-forging (HF) method
     - Grain Orientation effects on electrical properties
     - Conclusions and future trends
     - References

    Novel solution routes to ferroelectrics and relaxors
    K Babooram and Z-G Ye, Simon Fraser University, Canada
     - Introduction
     - Soft chemical methods for the synthesis of mixed metal oxides
     - Polyethylene glycol-based new sol-gel route to relaxor ferroelectric solid solution xPbTiO3 [x = 0.1 and 0.35]- (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3
     - New soft chemical methods for the synthesis of ferroelectric SrBi2Ta2O9
     - Novel sol-gel route to ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12 and Bi4-xLaxTi3O12 ceramics
     - Future trends
     - References

    Room temperature preparation of KNbO3 nanoparticles and thin film from a perovskite nanosheet
    K Toda and M Sato, Niigata University, Japan
     - Introduction
     - Conversion of K2NbO3F to nanosheets in water and re-stacking
     - Re-stacking of nanosheets
     - Fabrication of KNbO3 thin film
     - Conclusions and future trends
     - References

    Lead-free relaxors
    A Simon and J Ravez, University Bordeaux, France
     - Introduction
     - Lead-free relaxor ceramics derived from BaTiO3
     - Perovskite-type relaxor not derived from BaTiO3
     - Crossover from a ferroelectric to a relaxor state
     - Lead-free relaxors with tetragonal bronze (TTB) structure
     - Ceramics containing bismuth
     - Conclusions
     - References

    PART 8: NOVEL PROPERTIES OF FERROELECTRICS AND RELATED MATERIALS

    Novel physical effects in dielectric superlattices and their applications
    S Zhu and Y Qin, Nanjing University, China
     - Introduction
     - Preparation of DSLs by modulation of ferroelectric domains
     - Preparation of DSL by using photorefractive effect
     - Application of DSLs in nonlinear parametric interactions
     - Application of DSLs in acoustics
     - Application of DSLs in electro-optic technology
     - Outlook
     - Acknowledgments
     - References

    Dielectric and optical properties of perovskite artificial superlattices
    T Tsurumi and T Harigai, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
     - Introduction
     - Preparation of Artificial Superlattices
     - Lattice Distortions in Artificial Superlattices
     - Optical Property of Artificial Superlattices
     - Dielectric Properties of Artificial Superlattices
     - Conclusion and future trends
     - References

    Crystal structure and defect control in Bi4Ti3O12-based layered ferroelectric single crystals
    Y Noguchi and M Miyayama, The University of Tokyo, Japan
     - Introduction
     - Crystal structure
     - Electronic band structure and density of states (DOS)
     - Defect structure
     - Domain structure
     - Leakage current
     - Polarization properties
     - Effects of La and Nd substitution on the electronic band structure and chemical bonding
     - Summary
     - Future trends