Microjoining and Nanojoining

Microjoining and Nanojoining

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ISBN 9781420070835
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  • Reviews the basics of nanojoining, including solid-state bonding and fusion microwelding
  • Covers microjoining and nanojoining processes such as bonding mechanisms and metallurgy, sensing, and numerical modeling
  • Examines applications of microjoining, such as the manufacturing of medical devices, and the sealing of solid oxide fuel cells
  • Serves as a valuable reference for production engineers, designers, and researchers


Many recent advances in technology have been associated with nanotechnology and the miniaturization of components, devices and systems. Microjoining has been closely associated with the evolution of microelectronic packaging, but actually covers a much broader area, and is essential for manufacturing many electronic, precision and medical products.

Part 1 reviews the basics of microjoining, including solid-state bonding and fusion microwelding. Part 2 covers microjoining and nanojoining processes, such as bonding mechanisms and metallurgy, process development and optimization, thermal stresses and distortion, positioning and fixturing, sensing, and numerical modelling. Part 3 discusses microjoining of materials such as plastics, ceramics, metals and advanced materials such as shape memory alloys and nanomaterials. The book also discusses applications of microjoining such as joining superconductors, the manufacture of medical devices and the sealing of solid oxide fuel cells.

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamental aspects of microjoining processes and techniques. It will be a valuable reference for production engineers, designers and researchers using or studying microjoining technologies in such industries as microelectronics and biomedical engineering.


Table of Contents

Basics of Microjoining

Mechanisms of Solid-State Bonding, J.E. Gould

- Introduction
 - Mechanisms of solid-state bonding
 - Contaminant displacement/interatomic bonding
 - Extension of the contacting surfaces
 - Separation of the contaminated areas
 - Realignment of the grain structures for bonding
 - Breakdown of the interfacial structure
 - Summary
 - References

Mechanisms of Soldering and Brazing, T. Takemoto

- Introduction
 - Definition of soldering and brazing
 - Basic metallurgical reaction during soldering and brazing
 - Materials for solders and brazing
 - Soldering and brazing process
 - Summary and future trends

Mechanisms of Fusion Microwelding, G.A. Knorovsky and VV. Semak

- Introduction
 - Fundamental aspects
 - Forces acting on the pool
 - Practical aspects
 - Some problems in applying micro fusion joining
 - Examples: laser, arc and resistance welding
 - Summary and conclusions
 - Acknowledgements
 - References

Modelling of Solid-State Bonding, Y. Takahashi 

- Introduction
 - Viscoplastic deformation model and interfacial deformation
 - Thermocompression bonding
 - Thermosonic bonding
 - Numerical simulation of lap resistance welding
 - Conclusive remarks
 - References

Modelling of Fusion Microwelding, B. Chang

- Introduction
 - Features of thermal process in fusion microwelding
 - Modelling of conductive heat transfer
 - Modelling of convective heat transfer
 - Modelling of resistance microwelding
 - Summary and future trends
 - Acknowledgements
 - References

Sensing, Monitoring and Control, M. Mayer 

- Introduction
 - Definitions and methods
 - Signals from joining processes
 - Applications
 - Future trends
 - References

Assembly Process Automation and Materials Handling, Y.M. Cheung and D. Liu

- Introduction
 - Assembly equipments for in-line process
 - Material handling in assembly equipment
 - Control of process parameters for assembly processes
 - Case study: design a customized assembly equipment - an alignment laser welder for fibre pigtailed TO-can laser diode package
 - Future trends
 - References

Microjoining and Nanojoining Processes

Microelectronics Wire Bonding, I. Lum, M. Mayer and Y. Zhou

- Introduction
 - Wire bonding process
 - Process parameters
 - Mechanisms of bond formation
 - Quality control
 - Equipment and fixturing
 - Current directions
 - References

Solid-State Diffusion Bonding, A. Shirzadi

- Basic definition
 - Solid-state bonding in comparison with other joining methods
 - Main bonding parameters and apparatus
 - Theoretical aspects and modelling of solid-state diffusion bonding
 - Various approaches to overcome surface oxide problem
 - Non-chemical surface oxide removal using liquid gallium
 - Summary

Bonding Using Nanoparticles, A. Hirose and K.F. Kobayashi

- Introduction
 - Structure and thermal characteristics of composite Ag nanoparticle
 - Bonding of various metals using composite Ag nanoparticle
 - Effects of bonding conditions on bondability of Cu-to-Cu joints
 - Bonding of Si chip
 - Conclusion and future trends
 - References

Diffusion Soldering and Brazing, M.L. Kuntz and Y. Zhou

- Introduction to diffusion soldering/brazing
 - Process description of diffusion soldering/brazing
 - Diffusion soldering/brazing process mechanics
 - Evaluating joint properties
 - Modeling of diffusion soldering/brazing
 - Summary and future trends
 - References

Laser Soldering, Y. Tian

- Introduction
 - Overview of laser soldering
 - Fundamentals of laser soldering
 - Fluxless laser soldering
 - Reliability of solder joint
 - Summary and future trends
 - Acknowledgment
 - References

Fluxless Soldering, J.P. Jung and S.M. Hong

- Flux in Soldering
 - Demand for fluxless soldering
 - Fluxless soldering process
 - Summary

Laser Microwelding, I. Miyamoto and G A Knorovsky

- Introduction
 - Fundamentals of laser micro welding
 - Thermal modeling of laser microwelding
 - Weld defects
 - Laser microwelding technologies
 - Evaluation of micro weld joints
 - Applications of laser microwelding
 - Novel laser microwelding technologies
 - Future trends
 - Acknowledgements
 - Bibliography
 - Equation annex

Electron Beam Microwelding, G.A. Knorovsky, T. Dorfmüller, U. Dilthey, and K. Woeste           

- Introduction
 - Technology
 - Microwelding process
 - Examples of joining and applications
 - Summary
 - Acknowledgements
 - References

Resistance Microwelding, S. Fukumoto, Y Zhou, and W Tan

- Introduction
 - Fundamentals
 - Process variations
 - Process conditions: Welding parameters
 - Process conditions: Surface
 - Dynamic resistance and process control
 - Equipment
 - Summary and future trends
 - References

Adhesive Bonding, I.S. Böhm, E. Stammen, G. Hemken, and M. Wagner

- Introduction
 - Adhesive bonding as joining technology
 - Adhesive bonding process: pre treatment
 - Dispensing and mixing of adhesives
 - Curing and setting of adhesives
 - Quality control
 - Principles of adhesive selection and examples of applications
 - Microelectronic interconnections and packaging
 - Other applications of adhesive bonding
 - Future trends
 - Appendix
 - References

Introduction to Nanojoining, S. Sahin, M. Yavuz, and Y.N. Zhou

- Introduction
 - Nano-joining methods
 - Joining by electron beam nano-welding
 - Joining by resistance nano-welding
 - Joining by ultrasonic nano-welding
 - Joining by laser nano-welding
 - Summary & future trends
 - References

Microjoining of Materials and Applications of Microjoining

Joining of High Temperature Superconductors, G. Zou

- Introduction
 - Superconducting materials
 - Processing technologies of high temperature superconductors
 - Needs for joining high temperature superconductors
 - Joining of BSCCO bulks
 - Soldering of BSCCO tapes
 - Diffusion bonding of BSCCO tapes
 - Joining of YBCO bulks
 - Conclusion and future trends
 - Acknowledgements
 - References

Joining of Shape Memory Alloys, K. Uenishi and K.F. Kobayashi

- Introduction
 - Basics of shape memory alloys
 - Application of SMAs
 - Background on welding and laser processing of SMA
 - Brazing of nithinol
 - Laser microwelding
 - Future trends
 - References

Wafer Bonding, J. Wei and Z. Sun

 - Introduction
 - Direct wafer bonding
 - Anodic wafer bonding
 - Wafer bonding via intermediate layers
 - Bonding of dissimilar materials
 - Concluding remarks
 - References

Plastics Microwelding, I. Jones

- Introduction
 - Theory of welding plastics
 - Introduction to welding processes
 - Introduction to processes for microwelding of plastics
 - Ultrasonic welding
 - Laser welding
 - Future trends
 - References

Microjoining in Medical Components and Devices, K.J. Ely and Y.N. Zhou 

- Introduction
 - Materials challenges
 - Medical components and devices
 - Joint design and process selection
 - Testing and verification
 - Summary and future trends
 - References

Hermetic Sealing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, M. Brochu and R.E. Loehman

- Introduction
 - Materials involved in the fabrication of a SOFC
 - Different approaches for sealing SOFCs
 - Summary
 - References

Joining of Bulk Nanostructured Materials, M. Brochu

- Introduction
 - Fabrication processes
 - Non-equilibrium state of microstructure
 - Attempts in joining bulk nanomaterials
 - Metallic glasses
 - Summary
 - References

Ceramic/Metal Bonding, A. Wu

 - Introduction
 - Characteristics of the typical ceramic materials
 - General difficulties in the joining of ceramic/metal
 - Brazing ceramics to metal
 - Vacuum diffusion bonding
 - Typical applications
 - Summary and future trends
 - References

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