Multimedia Content Encryption

Multimedia Content Encryption: Techniques and Applications

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Features

  • Addresses various aspects of multimedia content encryption, including fundamentals, key techniques, and the latest research
  • Emphasizes special encryption techniques suitable for practical applications, such as perceptual encryption, scalable encryption, commutative encryption and watermarking
  • Provides information on attacks that aim to break the multimedia encryption system, such as replacement attacks and signal processing attacks
  • Describes means to evaluate a multimedia encryption algorithm’s performance
  • Details applications based on multimedia encryption algorithms
  • Summary

    The widespread use of image, audio, and video data makes media content protection increasingly necessary and urgent. For maximum safety, it is no longer sufficient to merely control access rights. In order to fully protect multimedia data from piracy or unauthorized use, it must be secured through encryption prior to its transmission or distribution. Multimedia Content Encryption: Techniques and Applications presents the latest research results in this dynamic field.

    The book begins with the history of multimedia encryption and then examines general performance requirements of encryption and fundamental encrypting techniques. It discusses common techniques of complete, partial, and compression-combined encryption; as well as the more specialized forms, including perception, scalable, and commutative encryption. In addition, the author reviews watermarking and joint fingerprint embedding and decryption. Later chapters discuss typical attacks on multimedia encryption, as well as the principles for designing secure algorithms and various applications. An exploration of open issues, up-and-coming topics, and areas for further research rounds out the coverage.

    Shiguo Lian is the author or co-author of more than fifty peer-reviewed journal and conference articles covering topics of network security and multimedia content protection, including cryptography, secure P2P content sharing, digital rights management (DRM), encryption, watermarking, digital fingerprinting, and authentication. By following the techniques outlined in this book, users will be better able to protect the integrity of their multimedia data and develop greater confidence that their data will not be misappropriated.  

    Table of Contents

    Introduction
    Background
    Definition
    History
    Classification
    Book Organization
    References
    Performance Requirement of Multimedia Content Encryption
    Introduction
    Security Requirement
    Cryptographic Security
    Key Sensitivity
    Plaintext Sensitivity
    Ciphertext Randomness
    Perceptual Security
    Subjective Metric
    Objective Metric
    Security Level
    Compression Efficiency
    Encryption Efficiency
    Format Compliance
    Application Suitability
    Summary
    References
    Fundamental Techniques
    Introduction
    Cryptography
    Cipher
    Symmetric Cipher or Asymmetric Cipher
    Block Cipher or Stream Cipher
    Encryption Mode of Block Cipher
    ECB Mode
    CBC Mode
    CFB Mode
    OFB Mode
    CTR Mode
    Cryptanalysis
    Multimedia Compression
    Audio Compression
    Image Compression
    Video Compression
    Scalable Coding
    Multimedia Communication
    Transmission Network
    Application Scenarios
    Digital Watermarking
    Summary
    References
    Complete Encryption
    Definition of Complete Encryption
    Classification of Complete Encryption
    Encryption Algorithms for Raw Data or Compressed Data
    Raw Data Encryption
    Compressed Data Encryption
    Typical Encryption Algorithms
    Permutation
    Random Pixel Permutation
    Random Line Permutation
    Chaotic Map-Based Permutation
    Random Modulation
    Confusion-Diffusion Algorithm
    Partial DES
    Security and Efficiency
    Hardware Implementation
    Lightweight Encryption
    Performance Comparison
    Summary
    References
    Partial Encryption
    Definition of Partial Encryption
    Data Partitioning
    Part Selection
    Classification of Partial Encryption
    Partial Image Encryption
    Raw Image Encryption
    Partial Image Encryption during Compression
    Partial Encryption in Run-Length Coding
    Partial Encryption in Wavelet-Based Codec
    Partial Encryption of the Compressed Image
    Partial Audio Encryption
    Partial Video Encryption
    Encryption after Compression
    Encryption during Compression
    MPEG2 Video Encryption
    MPEG4 AVC/H.264 Video Encryption
    Performance Comparison
    Summary
    References
    Compression-Combined Encryption
    Definition of Compression-Combined Encryption
    Secure Huffman Coding Based on Random Huffman-Tree
    Permutation
    Secure Arithmetic Coding Based on Interval Permutation
    Secure Coding Based on Index Encryption
    Secure Fixed-Length Coding (FLC) Based on Index
    Encryption
    Secure Variable-Length Coding (VLC) Based on Index
    Encryption
    Secure Coding Based on Exp-Golomb Code
    Secure Coding Based on Huffman Code
    Random Coefficient Scanning
    Random Scanning in Wavelet Domain
    Random Scanning in DCT Domain
    Performance Comparison
    Summary
    References
    Perceptual Encryption
    Definition of Perceptual Encryption
    Perceptual Encryption Based on Bit-Plane Selection
    Bit-Plane Encryption in the Spatial Domain
    Bit-Plane Encryption in the DCT Domain
    Bit-Plane Encryption in the Wavelet Domain
    Perceptual Encryption Based on Frequency Band Selection
    Frequency Band Encryption in a DCT Block
    Frequency Band Encryption in the Wavelet Domain
    Performance Comparison
    Summary
    References
    Scalable Encryption
    Definition of Scalable Encryption
    Scalable Media Coding
    Layered Coding
    Layered and Progressive Coding
    Progressive Coding
    Scalable Coding
    Scalable Encryption Algorithms
    Scalable Encryption for Layered Coding
    Scalable Encryption for Layered and Progressive Coding
    Scalable Encryption for Progressive Coding
    Scalable Encryption for Scalable Coding
    Performance Comparison
    Summary
    References
    Commutative Watermarking and Encryption
    Definition of Commutative Watermarking and Encryption
    CWE Based on Partial Encryption
    The General Architecture
    The Improved Scheme
    Selection of the Encryption Part and Watermarking Part
    CWE Based on Homomorphic Operations
    The CWE Scheme Based on XOR Operation
    The CWE Scheme Based on Module Addition
    Performance Comparison
    Summary
    References
    Joint Fingerprint Embedding and Decryption
    Definition of Joint Fingerprint Embedding and Decryption
    Typical JFD Schemes
    The JFD Scheme Based on Broadcast Encryption
    The JFD Scheme Based on Codeword Modification
    The JFD Scheme Based on Partial Decryption
    The JFD Scheme Based on Index Modification
    The JFD Scheme Based on Homomorphic Operations
    Performance Comparison
    Summary
    References
    Typical Attacks on Multimedia Encryption
    Security Requirement of Multimedia Encryption
    Cryptographic Attacks
    Flaws in Perceptual Security
    Level Encryption in Run-Level Coding
    Statistical Model-Based Attack on Sign Encryption
    Replacement Attack
    Replacement Attack on Bit-Plane Encryption
    Replacement Attack on Frequency Band Encryption
    Replacement Attack on Intra-Prediction Mode
    Encryption
    Summary
    References
    Some Principles for Secure Multimedia Encryption
    Shannon’s Information Theory of Secrecy System
    Principles for Secure Complete Encryption
    General Models of Complete Encryption
    Encryption Before or After Compression
    Example of Secure Complete Encryption
    Random Packet Partitioning
    Packet Encryption
    Decryption
    Encryption Efficiency
    Principles for Secure Partial Encryption
    Model of Partial Encryption
    Principles for Secure Encryption
    Cryptographic Security
    Parameter Independence
    Perceptual Security
    Summary of the Principles and Means
    Example Based on JPEG2000 Image Encryption
    Parameter Sensitivity
    Parameter Independence
    Selection of the Cipher
    The Partial Encryption Scheme
    Performance Evaluation
    Principles for Secure Compression-Combined Encryption
    Model of Compression-Combined Encryption Scheme
    Relation between Compression Ratio and Security
    Equivalent Compression-Encryption Independent Scheme
    Analysis on Existing Compression-Combined
    Encryption Schemes
    Tradeoff between Compression Ratio and Security
    The Equivalent Compression-Encryption Independent Scheme
    Summary
    References
    Multimedia Encryption in Typical Applications
    Secure Media Player
    Secure Media Streaming
    Secure Media Preview
    Secure Media Transcoding
    Secure Media Distribution
    Digital Rights Management
    References
    Open Issues
    Perceptual Security
    Lightweight Implementation
    Contradiction between Format Compliance and Upgrade
    Ability to Support Direct Operations
    Key Management
    Combination between Encryption and Other Means
    Summary

     
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