Solid requirements engineering has become increasingly essential to on-time and on-budget delivery of software and systems projects. As more engineering programs make it a mandatory part of their curricula, students and working engineers require significant training to master the field, especially the complicated emerging ancillary software tools vital to the requirements engineering process.
With a focus on software-intensive systems, Requirements Engineering for Software and Systems provides a probing and comprehensive review of recent developments in intelligent systems, soft computing techniques, and their diverse applications in manufacturing. Topics covered can be applied to the requirements engineering practices for:
To illustrate key ideas associated with requirements engineering, the text presents three common example systems: an airline baggage handling system, a point-of-sale system for one location of a large pet store chain, and a system for a smart home in which one or more PCs control various aspects of the home’s functions. The selected systems encompass a wide range of applications—from embedded to organic, for both industrial and consumer uses.
Introduction to Requirements Engineering
What is Requirements Engineering?
You Probably Don’t Do Enough Requirements Engineering
What are Requirements?
Requirements Versus Goals
Requirements Level Classification
Requirements Specifications Types
Domain Vocabulary Understanding
Requirements Engineering Activities
Requirements Analysis and Reconciliation
Requirements Representation and Modeling
The Requirements Engineer
Requirements Engineering Paradigms
Requirements Engineer as Software Engineer
Requirements Engineer as Subject Matter Expert
Requirements Engineer as Architect
Requirements Engineer as Business Process Expert
Ignorance as Virtue
Role of the Customer?
Problems with Traditional Requirements Engineering
Four Dark Corners (Zave and Jackson)
Difficulties in Enveloping System Behavior
The Danger of All in Specifications
Mission Statement, Customers, and Stakeholders
Encounter with a Customer?
Customer Wants and Needs
What Do Customers Want?
What Don’t Customers Want?
Why Do Customers Change Their Minds?
Communicating with Customers and Other Stakeholders
Elicitation Techniques Survey
Designer as Apprentice
Joint Application Design (JAD)
Quality Function Deployment
Which Combination of Requirements Elicitation Techniques Should Be Used?
Prevalence of Requirements Elicitation Techniques
Elicitation Support Technologies
Using Wikis for Requirements Elicitation
Writing the Requirements Document
Requirements Representation Approaches
IEEE Standard 830-199871
IEEE Standard 830 Recommendations on Representing
IEEE Standard 830 Recommendations on Representing
ISO/IEC Standard 2503076
The Requirements Document
Users of a Requirements Document
Requirements Document Requirements
Best Practices and Recommendations
Requirements Risk Management
What is Requirements Risk Management?
Requirements Validation and Verification
Techniques for Requirements V&V
The Requirements Validation Matrix
The Importance of Measurement in Requirements Verification and Validation
Standards for Verification and Validation
IEEE Standard 83096
NASA Requirements Testing
NASA ARM Tool
What are Formal Methods?
A Little History
Using Formal Methods
Formal Methods Types
Formalization of Train Station in B
Formalization of Space Shuttle Flight Software Using MurF
Formalization of an Energy Management System Using Category Theory
Objections, Myths, and Limitations
Objections and Myths
Limitations of Formal Methods
Requirements Specification and Agile Methodologies
Introduction to Agile Methodologies
Principles Behind the Agile Manifesto
Extreme Programming (XP)
Requirements Engineering for Agile Methodologies
General Practices in Agile Methodologies
Agile Requirements Best Practices
Requirements Engineering in XP
Requirements Engineering in Scrum
Writing User Stories
Agile Requirements Engineering
Challenges for Requirements Engineering in Agile Methodologies
Tool Support for Requirements Engineering
Commercial Requirements Engineering Tools
Requirements and Traceability Management
Open Source Requirements Engineering Tools
Open Source Requirements Management Tool (OSRMT)
Requirements Engineering Tool Best Practices
Managing Divergent Agendas
Expectation Revisited: Pascal’s Wager
Global Requirements Management
Antipatterns in Requirements Management
Other Paradigms for Requirements Management
Requirements Management and Improvisational Comedy
Requirements Management as Scriptwriting
Reference Models for Requirements Management
ISO 9000-3 (1997)
Capability Maturity Model (CMMI)
A Case Study: FBI Virtual Case File
Value Engineering of Requirements
What, Why, When, and How of Value Engineering?
What is Value Engineering?
When Does Value Engineering Occur?
Estimating Using COCOMO and its Derivatives
Estimating Using Function Points
Function Point Cost Drivers
Use Case Points
Requirements Feature Cost Justification
Return on Investment
Net Present Value
Internal Rate of Return
Discounted Payback Period
Appendix: Software Requirements Specification for a Smart Home, Version 2.0
Based on a Penn State course taught by the author, this text provides a review of the theoretical and practical aspects of discovering, analyzing, modeling, validating, testing, and writing requirements for systems of all kinds, particularly software-intensive systems. Incorporating a variety of formal methods, social models, and modern requirements writing techniques useful to practicing engineers, the text is suitable for professional software engineers, systems engineers, and senior undergraduate and graduate students in these fields.
—Book News Inc., 2009