Practical Forensic Digital Imaging

Practical Forensic Digital Imaging: Applications and Techniques

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Features

  • Contains more than 500 color illustrations
  • Presents theory as well as practical applications and techniques used in technical photography
  • Describes lighting methods used for crime scenes and laboratories
  • Demonstrates photography techniques for a range of crime scenarios
  • Includes recommendations from the SWGIT (Scientific Working Group on Imaging Technology

Exercises and test bank with questions and answers are available with qualifying course adoption

Summary

Well-documented scenes can prove to be invaluable pieces of evidence at trial, and the ability to take compelling photographs is a critical skill for forensic scientists and investigators. Practical Forensic Digital Imaging: Applications and Techniques is an up-to-date and thorough treatment of digital imaging in the forensic sciences. Balancing practical considerations with scientific and standards-based requirements, the book’s clear, concise presentation illustrates the essentials of digital imaging required by professionals in the field.

Enhanced with crisp color photos, the book covers a host of critical topics, including:

  • The fundamentals of photographing crime scenes
  • The history of photography and the transition to digital imaging
  • Digital camera hardware and photographic techniques
  • Light, filters, and macro/micro imaging
  • Lay, professional, and expert witnesses, and the implications of Frye and Daubert
  • Enhancement of images and digital panoramic camera scanning
  • Storage of digital media
  • Ultraviolet and infrared imaging
  • Digital photo imaging microscopes
  • Covering the full range of scenarios that forensic professionals encounter, the author includes special sections dedicated to photography involving footwear and tire impressions, vehicles, death and morgue scenes, and taphonomic and entomological imaging, as well as fingerprints, burglaries, fire and arson, sex offenses, blood, and trace evidence and microscopy. The techniques in this volume enable photographers to capture the images that will not only tell the story, but will also stand up in court.

    Watch Patrick Jones in his laboratory on the CRC Press YouTube channel.

    Table of Contents

    Documentation
    Digital Imaging
    Forensic Digital Imaging
    The Transition from 35-mm Film to Digital Imaging
    Introduction
    4 × 5 Sheet Film Cameras
    The 120 Roll Film Cameras
    The 35-mm SLR
    Other Camera Types
    The Snapshot Camera
    The Polaroid Camera
    The Disposable or Single-Use Camera
    Film
    Proper Evidentiary Handling and Storage of Film
    Digital Camera Hardware
    The Digital Point-and-Shoot Camera
    The Digital Camera Body
    The Menu
    Image Numbering
    The Lenses
    Aperture
    Focusing the SLR Camera
    Aperture Preview
    Shutter
    Exposure
    Remote Shutter Release
    Resolution
    ASA, DIN, and ISO
    Hyperfocal Distance
    Digital Imaging
    Introduction
    Money
    Protection
    Cases
    Camera Strap
    The Ultraviolet Filter
    The Camera
    Flash or Strobe
    Automatic versus Manual
    Settings
    Shutter
    Slave
    The "Normal" Lens
    The Telephoto Lens
    The Wide-Angle Lens
    The Macro Lens
    Lighting with the Macro Lens
    Using the Flash on Your Camera
    The On-and-Off Switch
    Turn the Camera Upside Down
    List Photo Images
    The 90-Degree Rule
    Perspective Images
    The Scale
    Exculpatory Evidence
    Extreme Conditions
    18% Gray Card
    Light
    Introduction
    Ambient Light
    Color Temperature
    Color Rendering Index
    Flash/Strobe
    Direct Flash
    Indirect Flash
    Fill Light
    Subtractive Light
    Additive Light
    Ambient or Available Light
    Painting with Light
    Ring Light
    Diffusing Your On-Camera Flash with Tissue
    Other Lighting Equipment
    Snoot
    Barn Doors
    Umbrella
    Filters
    Introduction
    Polarizing Filter
    Band-Pass and Band-Block Filters
    Filter Factors
    Color-Compensating Filters
    Kodak Light-Balancing Filters
    Conversion Filters for Color Films
    Stacking Filters
    Neutral-Density Filters
    Infrared and Ultraviolet Filters
    Macro/Micro Imaging
    Introduction
    Photo Image Evidence at Degrees to the Object
    Bench Imaging
    Backgrounds
    Handguns
    The Scale
    Studio in a Box
    The Light Box
    Rope Caulk
    Helping Hands
    The Tripod
    Law
    The Lay Witness
    The Professional Witness
    The Expert Witness
    The Nature of Law
    Miranda Warnings
    Types of Witnesses
    The Lay Witness
    The Professional Witness
    The Expert Witness
    Qualifying an Expert Witness
    General
    Practice
    Certification
    Membership in Forensic Organizations
    Studies and Continuing Education
    Teaching of Forensic Science
    Lectures
    Publications
    Research
    Court Experience
    Reports
    Changes
    Daubert
    Frye
    Enhancement of Images
    Introduction
    Scientific Working Group on Imaging Technology
    History
    The Mission Statement of SWGIT
    Admissibility of Digital Images
    "Doctored" Images
    Cover Letter, Richard W. Vorder Bruegge Former SWGIT Chair
    Photo Image Enhancement Log
    Photoshop
    ACDSee Pro
    Enhancing a Latent Fingerprint
    Latent Lift
    Bare Footprint Developed with Ninhydrin
    Footwear and Tire Impressions
    Introduction
    Casting
    Equipment
    Footwear
    Tire Impressions
    Digital Panoramic Camera Scanning
    Scene Scanning
    The System
    Photogrammetry
    The Scene
    Panorama Imaging: Ultraviolet/Infrared
    Surveillance
    Preventive Measures
    Death Investigation
    Introduction
    The Coroner or Medical Examiner
    Official Photos of the Scene
    The Scene
    Overall or Establishing Photos
    Perspective Photos
    Unexpected Objects and Evidence
    Types of Images Taken during a Death Investigation
    Cases
    Morgue Photo Imaging
    Introduction
    At the Scene
    Universal Precautions
    At the Morgue
    Sequencing
    Lighting
    The Body
    ID Photo Image
    Scales
    Hands
    Wounds
    Lividity
    Scars, Marks, and Tattoos
    Fingerprints
    Clothing
    Taphonomic and Entomological Imaging
    Introduction
    The Scene
    The Body
    Insects
    Maggot Mass and Maggot Migration
    Containers
    Vehicles
    Water Recovery
    Bones
    The Autopsy
    Auto Process
    Introduction
    Exterior
    Interior
    Compartments and Hidey-Holes
    Trunk and Engine
    Fingerprints
    Latent Prints
    General Rules
    Fingerprints on Glass
    Fingerprints on Curved Glass
    Feathers
    Prints on Pills and Capsules
    Prints on Stainless Steel
    Prints on Toilet Seats
    Burglary
    Introduction
    Exterior
    Interior
    Alarm
    Locks
    Items of Interest
    Storage of Digital Media
    The Media
    Storage
    Fire and Arson Scene
    Introduction
    The Scene
    Lighting
    Flash
    Marking Areas
    Point of Origin
    Artifacts
    Crowd
    Digital Imaging
    Sex Offenses
    Introduction
    Dispatch
    The Scene
    Victim at the Morgue
    Victim at the Hospital
    Meeting the Victim
    Photo Imaging the Victim
    Injuries
    Bruising
    Clothing
    Children
    Trace Evidence and Microscopy
    Introduction
    Images through a Microscope
    Microscope Camera
    The Nikon Microphot
    Modification
    Blood
    Introduction
    Luminol
    Blowback: Blood in Gun Barrel
    Ultraviolet and Infrared Imaging
    Introduction
    UV Light Sources
    Body Fluids
    Insects
    Tattoos
    Infrared Light
    Fuji IS Pro UVIR Camera
    Filters for Use with the Fuji IS Pro Camera
    Other Considerations
    Digital Photo Imaging Microscope
    VHX-1000 and Forensic Inspection
    Handheld Integration
    Lenses
    Multiangle Stand
    High-Resolution Imaging
    High Dynamic Range
    Documentation and Measurement Tools
    3D Composition and Measurement
    SWGIT
    Introduction
    Disclaimer
    Bibliography
    Appendix A: Glossary
    Appendix B: Photo I.D. Card
    Index

    Author Bio(s)

    Patrick Jones is the Forensic Science Laboratory director at Purdue University. In addition to managing two laboratories, he teaches Crime Scene Investigation, Introduction to Forensic Science, Criminalistics Lab, and Advanced Criminalistics Lab. Mr. Jones has more than 34 years of experience in law enforcement, forensics investigation, security, and training. As a Crime Scene Investigator (CSI), he has worked on the John Wayne Gacy case, the Larry Eyler case (both serial killers) and the Ed Ling case among many others. He lectures and presents these cases for students and interested groups. Patrick Jones is also currently a White County Indiana Deputy Coroner and is an Indiana State Certified Medicolegal Death Investigator.

    Editorial Reviews

    I can honestly say that this is not just another forensic sciences book! Patrick’s diverse background, his experiences in the field and the classroom have been translated into a work that not only gets the essential information into the hands of the reader, it does so in a way that readers will find refreshing and intuitive. The book and its sections balance practical considerations with scientific and standards based requirements. The coverage of the topics in each section are clear and concise, and the breadth of coverage of the book is inclusive of what one needs to know about the fundamentals of digital imaging, as it relates to forensics.
    —Dr. Marcus K. Rogers, Professor/University Faculty Scholar, Fellow of CERIAS, Director - Cyber Forensics Program, Purdue University, from the Foreword

    " … a ‘‘How To’’ text, simplistic in nature yet thorough in covering highly technical material. … Check it out. You will not regret it."
    Journal of Forensic Sciences

     
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