Corrosion in Refineries (EFC 42)

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  • Examines ways of assessing and controlling corrosion in refinery equipment and operations
  • Reviews the factors affecting corrosion in various operations
  • Includes case studies on monitoring corrosion in refinery equipment
  • Discusses methods to prevent corrosion as well as techniques for troubleshooting corrosion problems
  • Summary

    Corrosion in ageing refinery plant presents a serious safety hazard. This important book summarizes key research into corrosion processes in refinery equipment, how it can be measured and controlled. The book reviews factors affecting corrosion such as carburization and metal dusting as well as corrosion in steel and other materials used in refinery technology. It considers corrosion in a range of refinery equipment such as storage tanks, HF alkylation units, sour water strippers, and insulated units. Other chapters discuss ways of testing for corrosion and cracking in refineries together with integrity and life cycle assessment techniques. There is also coverage of ways of trouble-shooting corrosion problems and preventative measures such as coating systems.

    Table of Contents

    Carburisation and metal dusting of steels and high temperature alloys by hydrocarbons
    H J Grabke, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Germany
     - Introduction: Thermodynamics
     - Carburisation
     - Metal dusting
     - References

    Integrity and life assessment of catalytic reformer units
    J M Brear and J Williamson, formerly of ERA Technology Ltd., UK
     - Introduction
     - Background
     - Risk assessment
     - Fired heaters
     - Reactor vessels
     - Pipework
     - Heat exchangers
     - High temperature hydrogen attack
     - Conclusions
     - Acknowledgements
     - References

    The use of spot hydrogen flux measurements in assessing corrosion and crack risk in refinery applications
    F Dean, Ion Science Ltd., UK
     - Introduction
     - Scenarios leading to hydrogen permeation and detection
     - A measurement of hydrogen activity based on flux measurement
     - Confidence guidelines
     - Meaning of activity a0
     - Derivation of activity conversion
     - References
     - Appendix 1
     - Appendix 2

    Degradation of carbon steel under the influence of sulphur in a refinery furnace remaining life prediction
    J Hucinska, Technical University of Gdansk, Poland
     - Introduction
     - Material and service conditions
     - In-service examinations
     - After-service examinations
     - Conclusions
     - References

    Troubleshooting corrosion problems in HF alkylation units
    Marcel Roche, Christophe Grenet and Martin Richez, Elf Antar, France
     - Introduction
     - Corrosion problems in HF alkylation units
     - Experience at Donges and Grandpuits refineries
     - Role of residual elements in steel
     - Leak prevention in an HF alkylation unit
     - Protective coatings tests
     - Conclusions
     - References

    Corrosion in the overhead system of a sour water stripper
    O Forsén and J Aromaa, Helsinki University of Technology and T Hakonen and K Rintamäki, Neste Oy, Finland
     - Introduction
     - Experimental
     - Test results
     - Discussion
     - References


    Corrosion of above ground storage tanks for petroleum products and choice of coating systems for their protection from corrosion
    A Groysman, Oil Refineries Ltd., Israel
     - Introduction
     - Experimental
     - Calculations
     - Results and discussion
     - Conclusions
     - References

    The use of coatings to prevent corrosion in process vessels operating at elevated temperatures and pressures
    A D Gaskin, Belzona Polymerics Limited, UK
     - Conventional materials of construction and their limitations
     - Characteristics and limitations of traditional coating systems
     - Development of high temperature coatings
     - Summary

    Methods of monitoring
    B Bjørnsen, H Horn, T Malvik and A Solumsmo, CorrOcean ASA, Norway and D Morton, CorrOcean Ltd, UK
     - The FSM technology
     - The FSM principle
     - The equipment
     - Case studies

    Disbonding test methodology: Definition of representative test conditions - results of an industry joint research programme
    L Coudreuse, CLI, B Cadilhac, Total, C Dumontier, CMP, France and R Koers, Shell, The Netherlands, G Riccardi, Nuovo Pignone, Italy, M Roche, TotalFinaElf, and F Ropital, IFP, France
    Summary. Background. Disbonding phenomenon. Numerical simulation of hydrogen profiles. Experimental approach. Conclusions. References.