Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles: Fundamentals, Theory, and Design, Second Edition

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  • Presents comprehensive overview of hybrid electric vehicles including series, parallel, and mild hybrid drive trains
  • Compiles a wealth of information from technical papers and reports
  • Displays design examples with simulation results in every chapter
  • Describes design methodology in mathematical terms, step by step
  • Includes accompanying design examples
  • Provides updates to all chapters along with two entirely new chapters
  • Designed so that specialized material can be selected and used to suit lectures


Air pollution, global warming, and the steady decrease in petroleum resources continue to stimulate interest in the development of safe, clean, and highly efficient transportation. Building on the foundation of the bestselling first edition, Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles: Fundamentals, Theory, and Design, Second Edition updates and expands its detailed coverage of the vehicle technologies that offer the most promising solutions to these issues affecting the automotive industry.

Proven as a useful in-depth resource and comprehensive reference for modern automotive systems engineers, students, and researchers, this book speaks from the perspective of the overall drive train system and not just its individual components.

New to the second edition:

  • A case study appendix that breaks down the Toyota Prius hybrid system
  • Corrections and updates of the material in the first edition
  • Three new chapters on drive train design methodology and control principles
  • A completely rewritten chapter on Fundamentals of Regenerative Braking

Employing sufficient mathematical rigor, the authors comprehensively cover vehicle performance characteristics, EV and HEV configurations, control strategies, modeling, and simulations for modern vehicles.

They also cover topics including:

  • Drive train architecture analysis and design methodologies
  • Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)-based drive trains
  • Electric propulsion systems
  • Energy storage systems
  • Regenerative braking
  • Fuel cell applications in vehicles
  • Hybrid-electric drive train design 

The first edition of this book gave practicing engineers and students a systematic reference to fully understand the essentials of this new technology. This edition introduces newer topics and offers deeper treatments than those included in the first. Revised many times over many years, it will greatly aid engineers, students, researchers, and other professionals who are working in automotive-related industries, as well as those in government and academia.

Table of Contents

Environmental Impact and History of Modern Transportation

Air Pollution

Global Warming

Petroleum Resources

Induced Costs

Importance of Different Transportation Development Strategies to Future Oil Supply

History of EVs

History of HEVs

History of Fuel Cell Vehicles


Fundamentals of Vehicle Propulsion and Brake

General Description of Vehicle Movement

Vehicle Resistance

Dynamic Equation

Tire–Ground Adhesion and Maximum Tractive Effort

Power Train Tractive Effort and Vehicle Speed

Vehicle Power Plant and Transmission Characteristics

Vehicle Performance

Operating Fuel Economy

Brake Performance


Internal Combustion Engines

4S, Spark-Ignited IC Engines

4S, Compression-Ignition IC Engines

2S Engines

Wankel Rotary Engines

Stirling Engines

Gas Turbine Engines

Quasi-Isothermal Brayton Cycle Engines


Electric Vehicles

Configurations of EVs

Performance of EVs

Tractive Effort in Normal Driving

Energy Consumption


Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Concept of Hybrid Electric Drive Trains

Architectures of Hybrid Electric Drive Trains


Electric Propulsion Systems

DC Motor Drives

Induction Motor Drives

Permanent Magnetic BLDC Motor Drives

SRM Drives


Design Principle of Series (Electrical Coupling) Hybrid Electric Drive Train

Operation Patterns

Control Strategies

Design Principles of a Series (Electrical Coupling)

Hybrid Drive Train

Design Example


Parallel (Mechanically Coupled) Hybrid Electric Drive Train Design

Drive Train Configuration and Design Objectives

Control Strategies

Parametric Design of a Drive Train



Design and Control Methodology of Series–Parallel (Torque and Speed Coupling) Hybrid Drive Train

Drive Train Configuration

Drive Train Control Methodology

Drive Train Parameters Design

Simulation of an Example Vehicle


Design and Control Principles of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Statistics of Daily Driving Distance

Energy Management Strategy

Energy Storage Design


Mild Hybrid Electric Drive Train Design

Energy Consumed in Braking and Transmission

Parallel Mild Hybrid Electric Drive Train

Series–Parallel Mild Hybrid Electric Drive Train


Peaking Power Sources and Energy Storages

Electrochemical Batteries


Ultra-High-Speed Flywheels

Hybridization of Energy Storages


Fundamentals of Regenerative Breaking

Braking Energy Consumed in Urban Driving

Braking Energy versus Vehicle Speed

Braking Energy versus Braking Power

Braking Power versus Vehicle Speed

Braking Energy versus Vehicle Deceleration Rate

Braking Energy on Front and Rear Axles

Brake System of EV, HEV, and FCV


Fuel Cells

Operating Principles of Fuel Cells

Electrode Potential and Current–Voltage Curve

Fuel and Oxidant Consumption

Fuel Cell System Characteristics

Fuel Cell Technologies

Fuel Supply

Non-Hydrogen Fuel Cells


Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Drive Train Design


Control Strategy

Parametric Design

Design Example


Design of Series Hybrid Drive Train for Off-Road Vehicles

Motion Resistance

Tracked Series Hybrid Vehicle Drive Train Architecture

Parametric Design of the Drive Train

Engine/Generator Power Design

Power and Energy Design of Energy Storage





Author Bio(s)

Dr. Mehrdad Ehsani has been at Texas A&M University, College Station, since 1981 and is the Robert M. Kennedy Endowed Chair of electrical engineering and director of the Advanced Vehicle Systems Research Program and the Power Electronics and Motor Drives Laboratory. He is Fellow of IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), Fellow of SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers), the recipient of the Avant Garde Award for hybrid vehicle technology development in the IEEE Vehicular Technology Society, founder of IEEE Power and Propulsion Conference, as well as numerous other honors and recognitions. He is the author of numerous books, technical publications, and patents in power electronics, motor drives, and vehicle electrical and propulsion systems.

Dr. Yimin Gao received his BS, MS, and Ph.D in mechanical engineering (major in development, design, and manufacturing of automotive systems) in 1982, 1986, and 1991, respectively, all from Jilin University of Technology, Changchun, Jilin, China. He joined the Advanced Vehicle Systems Research Program at Texas A&M University in 1995 as a research associate. Since then, he has been working in this program on research and development of electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

Dr. Ali Emadi is the Harris Perlstein Endowed Chair Professor of electrical engineering and the director of the Electric Power and Power Electronics Center and Grainger Laboratories at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). He is also founder and president of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies, Inc. (HEVT).

Editorial Reviews

... an outstanding job of updating and improving what was already the world’s leading introductory textbook on the topic. ... The new edition couldn’t have come at a better time. … If hybrid R&D in the United States is moving beyond Michigan, it is due in part to the efforts of the three authors. … This book, and the courses based on it, could transform the design and system integration of vehicles.
—James Gover, IEEE Fellow and Professor of Electrical Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan, USA, in IEEE Spectrum, April 2010