Nanofibers and Nanotechnology in Textiles

Nanofibers and Nanotechnology in Textiles

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Features

  • Demonstrates how nanotechnology is revolutionizing the world of materials
  • Explains a new generation of textile fibers that have a wide range of applications
  • Examines how to improve polymer properties

Summary

Written by a panel of experts drawn form industry and academia, this book reviews the impact of nanotechnology on the development of a new generation of textile fibers with enhanced functionality and a wide range of applications. It explores nanofiber production, discussing how different fiber types can be produced using electrospinning techniques. The book analyses the production and properties of carbon nanotubes and polymer nanocomposites and their applications in such areas as aerospace engineering. It covers ways of using nanotechnology to improve polymer properties such as thermal stability and dyeability and the use of nanotechnology to modify textile surfaces.

Table of Contents

Contents

NANOFIBER PRODUCTION


Electrospinning of Nanofibers, D.R. Salem
Introduction
Principles of Electrostatic atomization
Electrospraying and Electrospinning by the Capillary Method
Electrospraying and Electrospinning by the Charge Injection Method
References
Producing Nanofibre Structures by Electrospinning for Tissue Engineering,F.K. Ko and M.R. Gandhi
Introduction
Fabrication of Nanofibrous Scaffolds
Characterization of Nanofibrous Scaffolds
Cell-Scaffolds Interaction
Summary and Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
Continuous Yarns from Electrospun Nanofibers,E. Smit and R.D. Sanderson
Introduction
Using Electrospun Nanofibers: Background and Terminology
Controlling Fiber Orientation
Producing Non-Continuous or Short Yarns
Producing Continuous Yarns
Summary and Future Trends
Sources of Further Information and Advice
References
Producing Polyamide Nanofibers by Electrospinning,M. Ashfari, D-W Jung, A.E Tonelli, and R. Kotek
Introduction
The Electrospinning Process
Measuring the Mechanical Properties of Electrospun Nanofibers
Measuring the Effects of Different Spinning Conditions and the Use of High Molecular Weight Polymers on the Properties of Electrospun Nanofibers
Improving the Properties of Electrospun Nanofibers: Experimental Results
Conclusions
References
Controlling the Morphologies of Electrospun Nanofibers,T. Lin and X. Wang
Introduction
The Electrospinning Process and Fibre Morphology
Polymer Concentration and Fibre Diameter
Fibre Bead Formation and Fibre Surface Morphology
Controlling Fibre Alignment and Web Morphologies
Bicomponent Cross-Sectional Nanofibres
Future Trends
Acknowledgement
References
CARBON NANOTUBES AND NANOCOMPOSITES
Synthesis, Characterisation and Applications of Carbon Nanotubes: The Case of Aerospace Engineering,M. Regi
Introduction
The Development and Structure of Carbon Nanotubes
Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes
Characterisation Techniques
Purification Techniques
The Use of Carbon Nanotubes in Aerospace Engineering
Nanostructured Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications
Nanostructured Solid Propellents for Rockets
Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS) for Aerospace Applications
Other Aerospace Applications of Carbon Nanotubes
Conclusions
References
Carbon nanotube and nanofibre reinforced polymer fibres,M. Shaffer and J. Sandler
Introduction
Synthesis and Properties of Carbon Nanotubes
Developing Nanotube/Nanofibre Polymer Composites
Adding Nanotubes and Nanofibres to Polymer Fibres
Analysing the Rheological Properties of Nanotube/Nanofibre Polymer Composites
Analysing the Microstructure of Nanotube/Nanofibre Polymer Composites
Mechanical, Electrical and Other Properties of Nanocomposite Fibres
Future Trends
References
Structure and Properties of Carbon Nanotube Polymer Nanofibers Using Melt Spinning,R. Gorga
Introduction
Producing Carbon Nanotube Polymer Nanofibers
Thermal Characterisation
Fiber Morphology
Mechanical Properties of Fibers
Conclusions and Future Trends
Sources of Further Information and Advice
Acknowledgements
References
Multifunctional Polymer Nanocomposites for Industrial Applications,S.J. Bull
Introduction
The Development of Functional Polymer Nanocomposites
Improving the Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
Improving the Fire Retardant Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
Improving the Tribological Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
Case-Study: Development of a Nanocomposite Sliding Seal Ring
Enhancing the Functionality of Polymer Nanocomposites
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Nanofilled Polypropylene (PP) Fibers,M. Stiligoj-Smole and K. Kleinschek
Introduction
Polymer Layered Silicate Nanocomposites
The Structure and Properties of Layered Silicate Polypropylene (PP) Nanocomposites
Nano-Silica filled Polypropylene Nanocomposites
Calcium Carbonate and Other Additives
Conclusion
References

IMPROVING POLYMER FUNCTIONALITY


Nanostructuring Polymers with Cyclodextrins,A.E. Tonelli
Introduction
Formation and Characterisation of Polymer-Cyclodextrin-Inclusion Compounds
Properties of Polymer-Cyclodextrin-Inclusion Compounds
Homo- and Block Copolymers Coalesced from their Cyclodextrin-Inclusion Compounds
Constrained Polymerisation in Monomer Cyclodextrin-Inclusion Compounds
Coalescence of Common Polymer-Cyclodextrin-Inclusion Compounds to Achieve Fine Polymer Blends
Temporal and Thermal Stabilities of Polymers Nanostructured with Cyclodextrins
Cyclodextrin-Modified Polymers
Polymers with Covalently-Bonded Cyclodextrins
Conclusions
References
Dyeable Polypropylene (PP) via Nanotechnology,Q. Fan and G. Mani
Introduction
Dyeing Techniques for Unmodified Polypropylene
Modifying Polypropylene for Improved Dyeability Using Copolymerisation and Other Techniques
Polyblending and Other Techniques for Improving Polypropylene Dyeability
Dyeing Polypropylene Nanocomposites
Using X-ray Diffraction Analysis and Other Techniques to Assess dyed Polypropylene Nanocomposites
Conclusions
Acknowledgments
References
Polypropylene (PP)/Clay Nanocomposites,R.A. Kalgaonkar and J.P. Jog
Introduction
Organomodification of Clays
Polyolefin/Clay Nanocomposites
Polypropylene/Clay Nanocomposites
Polyethylene/Clay Nanocomposites
The Range of Polyolefin/Clay Nanocomposites
Conclusions
References
Multi-wall carbon nanotube-nylon 6 nanocomposites from polymerisation,Y.K. Kim and P.K. Patra
Introduction
Nanocomposite Synthesis and Production
Characterisation Techniques
Properties of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Nylon 6 Nanocomposite Fibers
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
NANOCOATINGS AND SURFACE MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES
Nanotechnologies for Coating and Structuring of Textiles,T. Stegmaier , M Dauner, V von Arnim, A Scherrieble, A Dinkelmann and H Planck
Introduction
Production of Nanofiber Nonwovens Using Electrostatic Spinning
Anti-Adhesive Nanocoating of Fibres and Textiles
Water and Oil-Repellent Coatings by Plasma Treatment
Self-Cleaning Superhydrophobic Surfaces
Sources of Further Information and Advice
References
Electrostatic Self-Assembled Nanolayer Films for Cotton Fibers,G.K. Hyde and J.P. Hinestrosa
Introduction
Principles of Electrostatic self-Assembly (ESA) for Creating Nanolayer Films
Advantages and Disadvantages of Electrostatic Self-Assembly
Substrates Used for ESA
Polyelectrolytes Used for ESA
Analysing self-Assembled Nanolayer Films on Cotton
Conclusions: Functional Textiles for Protection, Filtration and Other applications
References
Nanofabrication of thin polymer films,I. Luzinov
Introduction
Macromolecular Platform for Nanofabrication
‘Grafting from’ Technique for Synthesis of Polymer Films
‘Grafting to’ Technique for Synthesis of Polymer Films
Synthesis of Smart Switchable Coatings
Synthesis of Ultrahydrophobic Materials
Conclusions: Hydrophobic, Hydrophilic and Switchable Fibers
Acknowledgements
References
Hybrid Polymer Nanolayers for Surface Modification of Fibers,S. Minko and M. Motornov
Introduction: Smart Textiles via Thin Hybrid Films
Mechanisms of Responsive Behavior in Thin Polymer Films
Polymer–Polymer Hybrid Layers
Polymer–Particles Hybrid Layers
Hierarchical Assembly of Active Nanostructured Hybrid Films
Future Trends
Sources of Further Information and Advice
References
Structure-Property Relationships of Polypropylene Nanocomposite Fibres,C.Y. Lew and G. M. McNally
Introduction
Materials, Processing and Characterisation Techniques
Structure and Morphology
Phase Homogeneity and Spinline Stability
Optical Birefringence and Infra-Red activation
Crystallisation Behaviour and Mechanical Performance
Exfoliation by Extensional Flow Deformation
Conclusions
References