Echinoderms in a Changing World

Echinoderms in a Changing World: Proceedings of the 13th International Echinoderm Conference, January 5-9 2009, University of Tasmania, Hobart Tasmania, Australia

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Summary

Echinoderms are an ancient and diverse group of marine animals with a rich fossil record. They occur abundantly in all modern oceans and at all depths, where they contribute importantly to patterns in biodiversity and to the structure and functioning of marine systems.  It is therefore vital to understand how they will respond to a rapidly changing ocean climate and other anthropogenic stressors, informed by both the dynamics of the fossil record and responses of extant species.

The theme of the 13th International Echinoderm Conference (Hobart, Tasmania, 5-9 January 2009) was the response of echinoderms to global change. Echinoderms in a Changing World contains a selection of plenary and contributed papers, and a comprehensive presentation of abstracts of all oral papers and posters. The collection will be useful to all students of echinoderm biology, ecology and palaeontology, from undergraduate level to professional researchers.

Table of Contents

Foreword


Plenary papers

Ocean acidification and echinoderms: How bad will it be for our favourite phylum?
M.A. Sewell & G.E. Hofmann

The legacy of ocean climate and chemistry change in the echinoderm fossil record: A review
J.H. Nebelsick, A. Kroh & A. Roth-Nebelsick

How many species of fossil holothurians are there?
M. Reich

Arm loss and regeneration in stellate echinoderms: An organismal view
J.M. Lawrence


Fossil echinoderms and palaeobiology

Taxonomy and palaeoecology of the genus Linthia (Echinoidea: Spatangoida) from Japan
K. Nemoto & K. Kanazawa

Development and functional morphology of sutural pores in Early and Middle Cambrian gogiid eocrinoids from Guizhou Province, China
R.L. Parsley

Comparison of asteroid and ophiuroid trace fossils in the Jurassic of Germany with resting behavior of extant asteroids and ophiuroids
Y. Ishida, M. Röper & T. Fujita


Morphology

Stereom differentiation in spines of Plococidaris verticillata, Heterocentrotus mammillatus and other regular sea urchins
N. Grossmann & J.H. Nebelsick

Estimating echinoid test volume from height and diameter measurements
L.F. Elliott, M.P. Russell & J.C. Hernández

Stone canal morphology in the brachiolaria larva of the asterinid sea star Parvulastra exigua
V.B. Morris, P. Cisternas, R. Whan & M. Byrne

Arm damage and regeneration of Tropiometra afra macrodiscus (Echinodermata: Crinoidea) in Sagami Bay, central Japan
R. Mizui & T. Kikuchi


Taxonomy

Comparisons of ophiactid brittle stars possessing hemoglobin using intronic variation
A.B. Christensen & E.F. Christensen


Population biology

Field and laboratory growth estimates of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus in Bermuda
M.P. Russell, T.A. Ebert, V. Garcia & A. Bodnar

Potential use of production and biomass for life-history comparisons of sea urchins
T.A. Ebert

Natural vs artificial: Quantifying settler and juvenile echinoderms on cobble substrate
L.B. Jennings & H.L. Hunt

Situational cannibalism in Luidia clathrata (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)
J.M. Lawrence, J.C. Cobb, T. Talbot-Oliver & L.R. Plank

Aspects of the biology of an abundant spatangoid urchin, Breynia desorii in the Kimberley region of north-western Australia
J.K. Keesing & T.R. Irvine

Ophiopsila pantherina beds on subaqueous dunes off the Great Barrier Reef
E. Woolsey, M. Byrne, J.M. Webster, S. Williams, O. Pizarro, K. Thornborough, P. Davies, R. Beaman & T. Bridge

How to lose a population: The effect of Cyclone Larry on a population of Cryptasterina pentagona at Mission Beach, North Queensland
A. Dartnall, H. Stevens & M. Byrne


Ecology

Patchy and zoned Diadema barrens on central Pacific coasts of Honshu, Japan
D. Fujita, R. Ishii, T. Kanyama, M. Abe & M. Hasegawa

Native spider crab causes high incidence of sub-lethal injury to the introduced seastar Asterias amurensis
S.D. Ling & C.R. Johnson


Ecotoxicology and heat stress

Echinoderm ecotoxicology: Application for assessing and monitoring vulnerabilities in a changing ocean
M. Byrne

Hsp70 expression in the south-eastern Australian sea urchins Heliocidaris erythrogramma and H. tuberculata
H.D. Nguyen, M. Byrne & M. Thomson

Sediment copper bioassay for the brittlestar Amphiura elandiformis—technique development and management implications
C.K. Macleod, R.S. Eriksen & L. Meyer


Reproductive biology

An ornate fertilisation envelope is characteristic of some Ophiocoma species (Ophiuroidea: Ophiocomidae)
P. Cisternas, T.D. O’Hara & M. Byrne


Behavior

Complexity in the righting behavior of the starfish Asterina pectinifera
M. Migita


Abstracts – Oral papers

Echinoderm biodiversity of the Australian continental margin (100–1500 m depths)
F. Althaus, K. Gowlett-Holmes, F. McEnnulty, A. Williams, P. Dunstan, L. Marsh, T.D. O’Hara, M. O’Laughlin & A. Miskelly

Activity of different populations of Patiriella regularis and Patiriella mortenseni in lowered salinity
M.F. Barker

Molecular genetic variation of strongylocentrotid sea urchins in the Eastern Atlantic
T.T. Bizuayehu, N.T. Hagen & T. Moum

Corrupted urchins: Impact of climate change on development
M. Byrne, M. Ho, H. Nguyen, N. Soars, P. Selvakumaraswamy, A. Davis & S. Dworjanyn

Larval development in the family Ophiocomidae provides some perspectives on life history trends in the Ophiuroidea
P. Cisternas, P. Selvakumaraswamy, M. Byrne, J. Hodin & T.D. O’Hara

Effects of lower seawater pH on sea urchin larvae: Implications for future ocean acidification
D. Clark, M. Lamare & M. Barker

Response of sea urchin larvae to reduced seawater pH: A comparison among tropical, temperate and polar species
D. Clark, M. Lamare & M. Barker

Morphological and molecular systematic data of elasipodid species (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from New Zealand’s IPY-CAML 2008 NZ survey of the Ross Sea and Scott and Admiralty seamounts, Antarctica
N. Davey

Evolutionary pathways among shallow and deep-sea echinoids of the genus Sterechinus in the Southern Ocean
A. Díaz, E. Poulin, J.P. Féral, B. David & T. Saucède

Metal contaminants: A threat to echinoderms in the 21st century?
P. Dubois

How reliable are age estimations of sea urchins?
C.P. Dumont, J.H. Himmelman & M.P. Russell

The middle Triassic crinoid Encrinus liliiformis from SW Germany and its ecophenotypic reaction to habitat diversity
J.F. Dynowski & J.H. Nebelsick

Problems with life-history comparisons in echinoderms
T.A. Ebert

Assessing shape variation of brachials in comatulids
M. Eléaume, L. Hemery, N. Ameziane, R. Cornette, V. Debat & M. Baylac

Using hydrodynamic modelling and genetics of multiple urchin species to infer marine connectivity in Western Australia
P.R. England, D. Alpers, M. Feng & T. Wernberg

New asteroids from the North East Pacific: Exceptional diversity and morphological radiation of the family Solasteridae
A. Gale, R. Clark & P. Lambert

Origin and evolution of the deep sea asteroid fauna
A. Gale

Field and laboratory estimates of growth for the sea urchin Lytechinus variegates in Bermuda
V. Garcia, M.P. Russell, T.A. Ebert & A. Bodner

Structure of the species assemblages of conspicuous echinoderms at the Archipelago Espiritu Santo, Baja California Sur, Mexico
I.A. Guzmán-Mendez, M.D. Herrero-Perezru & A.H. Weaver

Holothurian settlement in two protected reefs at Cozumel, México
M.D. Herrero-Pérezrul, S. Rojero-León & M. Millet-Encalada

Proteomic analysis of sea star coelomocytes
K. Holm, B. Hernroth & M. Thorndyke

Is ‘barrens’ habitat good for sea urchins?
C.R. Johnson, S.D. Ling & E.M.A. Strain

Identifying management options to minimise risk of development of sea-urchin barrens 255
C.R. Johnson, J.C. Sanderson, S.D. Ling, C. Gardner, S.D. Frusher, K.S. Redd & H.G. Pederson

At the root of the problem—phylogeny of post-palaeozoic echinoids 255
A. Kroh & A.B. Smith

Sea urchins in an acidic and warm high-CO2 world 256
H. Kurihara, R. Yin & A. Ishimatsu

Epifauna associated with the sea cucumber Holothuria mexicana in Puerto Rico 256
E.N. Laboy-Nieves & M. Muñiz-Barretto

Aspidochirote sea cucumber diversity and status of stocks in the Bunaken National
Marine Park (BNMP), North Sulawesi, Indonesia 257
D.J.W. Lane

Sea urchin grazing in seagrass in temperate Western Australia (Luscombe Bay, Cockburn Sound) 257
M.W. Langdon, M.van Keulen & E.I. Paling

Molecular phylogeny of symbiotic pearlfishes 258
D. Lanterbecq, E. Parmentier, M. Todesco & I. Eeckhaut

The geometry of the Allee effect 258
G.R. Leeworthy

Climate-driven range extension of a sea urchin leads to a new and impoverished reef state 259
S.D. Ling, C.R. Johnson, K. Ridgway, A.J. Hobday, S. Frusher & M. Haddon

Human-facilitated reproductive hotspots of an introduced seastar 259
S.D. Ling, C.R. Johnson, C.N. Mundy, J.D. Ross & A. Morris

Recruitment of echinoderms to artificial habitats in temperate Australia: An assessment
of their potential as a surrogate for total biodiversity 260
R.H. Magierowski & C.R. Johnson

Ophiuroidea luminescence: Diversity and distribution, a first analysis 260
J. Mallefet & T.D. O’Hara

Function of Ophiopsila aranea luminescence (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata) 261
J. Mallefet, O. Hurbin & A. Jones

Paedomorphosis in brittle stars—postlarval evo-devo 261
A. Martynov & S. Stöhr

Exploring ecological shifts using qualitative modelling: Formation of sea urchin barrens
and alternative states on Tasmanian rocky-reefs 262
M.P. Marzloff, C.R. Johnson & J.M. Dambacher

The concerted regulation of acrosome reaction in starfish by intracellular
cGMP, cAMP, and Ca2+ levels 263
M. Matsumoto, O. Kawase, M.S. Islam, M. Naruse & M. Hoshi

Challenges and breakthroughs in the study of deep-sea echinoderm biology
A. Mercier

Mitochondrial markers reveal many species complexes and non-monophyly in aspidochirotid holothurians
F. Michonneau, K. Netchy, J. Starmer, S. McPherson, C.A. Campbell, S.G. Katz, L. Kenyon, J. Zill, G. Paulay, S. Kim, A.M. Kerr & M. O’Laughlin

The effect of ocean acidification on early life history stages of the Australian sea urchins Heliocidaris tuberculata and Tripneustes gratilla
S. Mifsud, J. Havenhand & J. Williamson

Divergent reproductive mode reveals cryptic speciation in the lesser biscuit star Tosia australis
K. Naughton

Heat shock protein expression as a function of temperature and season in Heliocidaris sea urchins
H.D. Nguyen, M. Thomson & M. Byrne

Echinoderm biogeography in the Southern Hemisphere
T.D. O’Hara

A taxonomic review of the family Asteroschematidae (Ophiuroidea) from Japan
M. Okanishi & T. Fujita

Observations of reproductive strategies for some dendrochirotid holothuroid species (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Dendrochirotida)
M. O’Loughlin, C. Rowley, J. Eichler, L. Altoff, A. Falconer, M. Mackenzie & E. Whitfield

Some molecular phylogenetic data for holothuroid species from Antarctica, Australia and New Zealand (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea)
M. O’Loughlin

Diversity and distribution of holothuroid species south of the Antarctic Convergence (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea)
M. O’Loughlin

Integrating electronic technologies in ecological field studies: Assessing movement, habitat use, and behaviour of lobsters as key predators of sea urchins in eastern Tasmania
H.G. Pederson, C.R. Johnson, S.D. Ling & J.C. Sanderson

Molecular detection of echinoderms in the diet of temperate marine predators
K.S. Redd, S.D. Frusher, S.N. Jarman & C.R. Johnson

Variation in reproductive traits of viviparous sea stars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)
L.M. Roediger & T.F. Bolton

Changes in protein profiles through the reproductive cycle of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus
M.A. Sewell, S. Eriksen, K. Ruggiero & M. Middleditch

Fossil clypeasteroids (Echinodermata) of the Indian subcontinent: A review
D.K. Srivastava & A. Kroh

Quantitative analysis of morphological characters in Stichopodidae (Holothuroidea, Aspidochirotida)
J.A. Starmer & G. Paulay

Negative impacts of the invasive sea urchin (Centrostephanus rodgersii) on commercially fished blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra)
E.M.A. Strain & C.R. Johnson

Isolated lateral arm plates in ophiuroid palaeontology: How diagnostic are they?
B. Thuy & S. Stöhr

Life modes of the conspicuously dimorphic brittle star Ophiodaphne formata (Koehler, 1905) (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea)
H. Tominaga & M. Komatsu

Outbreaks and dieoffs: Causes and consequences of large amplitude population density fluctuations in echinoderms
S. Uthicke, B. Schaffelke & M. Byrne

Molecular diversity and body distribution of the saponins in the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali
S. Van Dyck, P. Gerbaux & P. Flammang

Daily and seasonal patterns in behaviour of the commercially important sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra
S.M. Wolkenhauer, T. Skewes, M. Browne & D. Chetwynd

Evolution of an embryonic gene regulatory network in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
G.A. Wray, D. Garfield & D. Runcie

Evolution and adaptive significance of the gastric caecum in Irregularia (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)
A. Ziegler, G. Rolet, C. De Ridder & R.J. Mooi


Abstracts – Posters

Concurring evidence of rapid sea-cucumber overfishing in the Sultanate of Oman
K.M. Al-Rashdi, F.I. Al-Ajmi, S.H. Al-Habsi & M.R. Claereboudt

Echinothurioid diversity in New Zealand seas
O. Anderson

Gametogenic synchronicity with respect to time, depth and location in three deep-sea echinoderms
S. Baillon, J-F. Hamel & A. Mercier

Evolution of maternal provisioning in echinoid echinoderms
M. Byrne, T.A.A. Prowse, I. Falkner & M.A. Sewell

Impact of seawater acidification on sea urchin growth
A.I. Catarino & P. Dubois

Growth and regeneration of structures involved in ophiuroid disc autotomy
N.A. Charlina, I.Y. Dolmatov & I.C. Wilkie

Evaluation of tagging techniques for Australostichopus (Stichopus) mollis (Hutton, 1872) for potential ranching studies
N. Davey, G. Moss, P. James & J. Stenton-Dozey

Plasticity of the echinoderm skeleton
P. Dubois, C. Moureaux, C. Borremans, J. Hermans, G. Mannaert & L. André

Impact of CO2-driven ocean acidification on echinoderm early life-history is species-specific and not easy to predict
S. Dupont & M. Thorndyke

Genotype and phenotype in development of the sea star nervous system: The transition from bilateral to radial symmetry
L. Elia, P. Selvakumaraswamy, P. Cisternas, M. Byrne & V. Morris

Preliminary analysis on genetic structure of dense populations of Ophiura sarsii on the upper slope around northern Japan
T. Fujita & T. Kuramochi

Stereom differentiation in spines of Plococidaris verticillata, Heterocentrotus mammillatus and other regular sea urchins
N. Grossmann & J.H. Nebelsick

Effect of seawater acidification on cidaroid spines
V. Guibourt, A.I. Catarino & P. Dubois

Proliferation-inducing activity of mesenchyme cells probably contributes to growth of epithelial cells in starfish embryogenesis
G. Hamanaka, M. Matsumoto & H. Kaneko

The genus Antedon (Crinoidea, Echinodermata): An example of evolution through vicariance
L. Hemery, M. Eléaume, N. Ameziane, P. Chevaldonné & A. Dettaï

Development of the sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota
Y. Hiratsuka & T. Uehara

Pattern formation in starfish: Arm stumps, regeneration models, and evolution
F.H.C. Hotchkiss

Comparison of asteroid and ophiuroid trace fossils in the Jurassic of Germany with resting behaviour of extant asteroids and ophiuroids
Y. Ishida, M. Röper & T. Fujita

Photoreception in echinoderms: PCR amplification of opsin-like genes in Paracentrotus lividus and Asterias rubens
D. Lanterbecq, J. Delroise, P. Flammang & I. Eeckhaut

Intracellular pathways involved in oocytes maturation induced by dithiothreitol (DTT) and by a new Maturation Inducing Substance (MIS) in sea cucumbers
A. Léonet, M. Jangoux & I. Eeckhaut

Sea cucumbers of Australia
J.S. López

Characterisation of Amphiura filiformis luciferase (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata)
J. Mallefet, B. Parmentier, X. Mulliez, O. Shimomura & P. Morsomme

Nervous control of Amphiura arcystata luminescence (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata)
J. Mallefet

Taxonomic revision of the genus Euapta (Holothuroidea: Synaptidae)
A. Martínez-Melo, F. Michonneau, G. Paulay & F.A. Solís-Marín

The effects of sunscreen compounds on UV-exposed sea urchin larvae across a latitudinal gradient
A. McCarthy & M. Lamare

Arm damage and regeneration of Tropiometra afra macrodiscus (Echinodermata: Crinoidea) in Sagami Bay, central Japan
R. Mizui & T. Kikuchi

Connexions of the larval coeloms in the brachiolaria larva of the sea star Parvulastra exigua (Asteroidea, Asterinidae)
V.B. Morris, P. Selvakumaraswamy, M. Byrne & R. Whan

Variation in stone canal morphology in the brachiolaria larva of the sea star Parvulastra exigua (Asteroidea, Asterinidae)
V.B. Morris, P. Cisternas, M. Byrne & R. Whan

Maturation stage and extractive components in the gonads from seven Japanese edible species of sea urchins
Y. Murata & T. Unuma

Conserved role of ARIS: Acrosome reaction-inducing substance in the echinodermata
M. Naruse, H. Sakaya, M. Hoshi & M. Matsumoto

Morphology, taphonomy and distribution of Jacksonaster depressum from the Red Sea
J.H. Nebelsick, A.A. El-Hamied & A.S. Elattaar

The latest fossil record of the genus Linthia (Echinoidea: Spatangoida) from the Pleistocene
K. Nemoto & K. Kanazawa

Cloning and gene expression analysis of crinoid Otx and Pax6 orthologs
A. Omori, T.F. Shibata, Y. Nakajima, D. Kurokawa & K. Akasaka

Characterisation and quantification of the intradigestive bacterial microflora in Holothuria scabra (Jaeger, 1833) (Holothuroidea), major macrodeposit feeder of recifal intertidal zones
T. Plotieau & I. Eeckhaut

A nearly articulated aspidochirote holothurian from the Late Cretaceous (Santonian) of England
M. Reich

Unusual holothurians (Echinodermata) from the Late Ordovician of Sweden
M. Reich

Phenotypic plasticity and the developmental regulatory network in the purple sea urchin
D.E. Runcie, D.A. Garfield, C.C. Babbitt, A. Pfefferle, W.J. Nielsen & G.A. Wray

Fission, spawning, and metamorphosis occur continuously in the multi-armed sea-star, Coscinasterias acutispina (Stimpson, 1882)
D. Shibata, M. Komatsu & Y. Hirano

Glacial persistence of North Atlantic populations of Cucumaria frondosa (Holothuroidea: Echinodermata)
J. So, S. Uthicke, J-F. Hamel & A. Mercier

Echinopluteus vs. Echinopluteus transversus: Evolution of phenotypic plasticity in sea urchin larvae
N.A. Soars, T. Prowse & M. Byrne

Resistance of pearlfishes to saponins
M. Todesco, I. Eeckhaut & E. Parmentier

Analysis of expression pattern of Hox cluster genes in feather star Oxycomanthus japonicas
T. Tsurugaya, T. Shibata, D. Kurokawa & K. Akasaka

Changes in free amino acid composition in the ovary and testis of the sea urchin Pseudocentrotus depressus
T. Unuma & Y. Murata

The major yolk protein in the sea urchin is synthesised mainly in the gut inner epithelium and the gonad nutritive phagocytes before and during gametogenesis
T. Unuma, K. Yamano & Y. Yokota

Genetic barcoding of commercial bêche-de-mer species
S. Uthicke, M. Byrne & C. Conand

Ecological similarities between the associated fauna of Echinometra vanbrunti and E. Lucunter (Echinoidea: Echinometridae) on Colombian Rocky shores
V.A. Vallejo & M. Monroy

Saponin diversity and body distribution in five tropical species of sea cucumbers from the family Holothuriidae
S. Van Dyck, P. Gerbaux & P. Flammang

Ophiopsila pantherina beds on relict dunes off the Great Barrier Reef
E. Woolsey, M. Byrne, S. Williams, O. Pizarro, K. Thornborough, P. Davies, J. Webster, R. Beaman & T. Bridge

In which direction do regular sea urchins walk?
K. Yoshimura & T. Motokawa

First report of Ulophysema (Crustacea: Ascothoracida) outside northern seas, parasitizing the bathyal Antarctic species Pourtalesia hispida (Echinoidea: Holasteroida)
A. Ziegler & M.J. Grygier

Interdependence of internal organ systems and evolution of the axial complex in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)
A. Ziegler, C. Faber & T. Bartolomaeus

Author index
Conferees