The Physics of Medical Imaging

The Physics of Medical Imaging

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Summary

The Physics of Medical Imaging reviews the scientific basis and physical principles underpinning imaging in medicine. It covers the major imaging methods of x-radiology, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, and nuclear magnetic resonance, and considers promising new techniques. Following these reviews are several thematic chapters that cover the mathematics of medical imaging, image perception, computational requirements, and techniques. Throughout the book, the author encourages readers to consider key questions concerning imaging. This profusely illustrated and extensively indexed text is accessible to graduate physical scientists, advanced undergraduates, and research students. It logically complements books on applications of imaging techniques in medicine, making it useful for clinicians as well.

Table of Contents

Introduction - and some challenging questions. In the beginning. Diagnostic radiology with x-rays: Introduction; The imaging system and image formation; Photon interactions; Important physical parameters; X-ray tubes; Image receptors; Digital radiology. Quality assurance and image improvement in diagnostic radiology with x-rays. Introduction to quality assurance: Basic quality-assurance tests for x-ray sets; Specific quality-assurance tests; Data collection and presentation of the results; Summary of quality assurance; Improvement in radiographic quality; Scatter removal; Contrast enhancement; Summary of methods of image enhancement. X-ray transmission computed tomography: The need for sectional images; The principles of sectional imaging; Fourier-based solutions: The method of convolution and backprojection; Iterative methods of reconstruction; Other considerations. Clinical applications of X-ray computed tomography in radiotherapy planning: X-ray computed tomography scanners and their role in planning; Non-standard computed tomography scanners. The physics of radioisotope imaging: Introduction; Radiation detectors; Radioisotope imaging equipment; Radionuclides for imaging; The role of computers in radioisotope imaging; Static and dynamic planar scintigraphy; Emission computed tomography; Quality control and performance assessment of radioisotope imaging equipment; Clinical applications of radioisotope imaging. Diagnostic Ultrasound: Introduction; Basic physics; Engineering principles of ultrasonic imaging; Clinical applications and biological aspects of diagnostic ultrasound; Research topics. Spatially localised nuclear magnetic resonance: Introduction; The development of nuclear magnetic resonance; Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance; Nuclear magnetic resonance pulse sequences; Relaxation processes and their measurement; Nuclear magnetic resonance image acquisition and reconstruction; Spatially localised spectroscopy; Instrumentation; Nuclear magnetic resonance safety. Physical aspects of infrared imaging: Introduction; Infrared photography; Transilluminaton; Infrared imaging; Liquid-crystal thermography; Microwave thermography. Imaging of tissue electrical impedance: The electrical behaviour of tissue; Tissue impedance imaging; Suggested clinical applications of applied potential tomography. Imaging by diaphanography: Clinical applications; Physical basis of transillumination; Experimental arrangements. The mathematics of image formation and image processing: The concept of object and image; The relationship between object and image; The general image processing problem; Discrete Fourier representation and the models for imaging systems; The general theory of image restoration; Image sampling; Two examples of image processing from modern clinical practice; Iterative image processing. Perception and interpretation of images. Introduction; The eye and brain as a stage in an imaging system; Spatial and contrast resolution; Perception of moving images; Quantitative measures of investigative performance. Computer requirements of imaging systems: Single- versus multi-user systems; Generation and transfer of images; Processing speed; Display of medical images; Three-dimensional image display: methodology; Three-dimensional image display: clinical applications. Epilogue: Introduction; The impact of radiation hazard on medical imaging practice; Attributes and relative roles of imaging modalities; References. Index.

Editorial Reviews

"This is an excellent publication and represents much dedication and hard work on behalf of the authors and, in particular, the editor. … a valuable text for all concerned with the science of imaging whether in industry or in the health service. All chapters are not only fact-stating but also thought-provoking … very readable text …"
-RAD Magazine, December 1990

"Developments in digital radiography, together with an analysis of the computing requirements of the various techniques, complete this excellent text. The authors have done a remarkable job in covering such a wide subject so well in such a short book."
-Image Processing Magazine

"Steve Webb has produced a first-class book. Because The Physics of Medical Imaging is up-to-date in a rapidly changing field, it is the text of choice for teaching graduate research students in this new and exciting subspeciality of physics."
-Physics Today

"This is a book well worth the money and I can strongly recommend it both as desk and bedside reading."
-HPA Bulletin