Biological Wastewater Treatment, Third Edition

Biological Wastewater Treatment, Third Edition

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Features

  • Imparts a theoretical and quantitative understanding of biochemical operations, specifically the kinetics and stoichiometry of major reactions
  • Employs mathematical models, such as the IAWQ Activated Sludge Models and biofilm modeling, to illustrate how bioreactor configuration affects performance in suspended and attached growth systems
  • Presents biochemical operations as integrated systems in which carbon oxidation, nitrification, denitrification, and phosphorus removal are potential reactions and parallel events, emphasizing the engineer’s role in determining dominating events
  • Provides process descriptions as well as details affecting the design, operation, and performance of suspended and attached growth bioreactors in a step-by-step fashion while employing practical constraints to ensure system viability in the real world
  • Reveals the future of bioreactors in the removal of xenobiotic organic chemicals from wastewater

Summary

Following in the footsteps of previous highly successful and useful editions, Biological Wastewater Treatment, Third Edition presents the theoretical principles and design procedures for biochemical operations used in wastewater treatment processes. It reflects important changes and advancements in the field, such as a revised treatment of the microbiology and kinetics of nutrient removal and an update of the simulation of biological phosphorous removal with a more contemporary model.

See what’s new in the Third Edition:

  • A chapter devoted to the description and simulation of anaerobic bioreactors
  • Coverage of applications of submerged attached growth bioreactors
  • Expanded discussion of modeling attached growth systems
  • Increased information on the fate and effects of trace contaminants as they relate to xenobiotic organic chemicals
  • A chapter on applying biochemical unit operations to design systems for greater sustainability

The book describes named biochemical operations in terms of treatment objectives, biochemical environment, and reactor configuration; introduces the format and notation used throughout the text; and presents the basic stoichiometry and kinetics of microbial reactions that are key to quantitative descriptions of biochemical operations. It then examines the stoichiometry and kinetics used to investigate the theoretical performance of biological reactors containing microorganisms suspended in the wastewater. The authors apply this theory to the operations introduced, taking care to highlight the practical constraints that ensure system functionality in the real world.

The authors focus on further biochemical operations in which microorganisms grow attached to solid surfaces, adding complexity to the analysis, even though the operations are often simpler in application. They conclude with a look to the future, introducing the fate and effects of xenobiotic and trace contaminants in wastewater treatment systems and examining how the application of biochemical operations can lead to a more sustainable world.

Table of Contents

Introduction and Background
Classification of Biochemical Operations
The Role of Biochemical Operations
Criteria for Classification
Common “Named” Biochemical Operations
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Fundamentals of Biochemical Operations
Overview of Biochemical Operations
Major Types of Microorganisms and Their Roles
Microbial Ecosystems in Biochemical Operations
Important Processes in Biochemical Operations
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Stoichiometry and Kinetics of Aerobic/Anoxic Biochemical Operations
Stoichiometry and Generalized Reaction Rate
Biomass Growth and Substrate Utilization
Soluble Microbial Product Formation
Solubilization of Particulate and High Molecular Weight Organic Matter
Ammonification and Ammonia Utilization
Phosphorus Uptake and Release
Simplified Stoichiometry and Its Use
Effects of Temperature
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Theory: Modeling of Ideal Suspended Growth Reactors
Modeling Suspended Growth Systems
Modeling Microbial Systems
Mass Balance Equation
Reactor Types
Modeling Nonideal Reactors
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Aerobic Growth of Heterotrophs in a Single Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor Receiving Soluble Substrate
Basic Model for a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor
Extensions of the Basic Model
Effects of Kinetic Parameters
Biomass Wastage and Recycle
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Multiple Microbial Activities in a Single Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor
International Water Association Activated Sludge Models
Effect of Particulate Substrate
Nitrification and Its Impacts
Denitrification and Its Impacts
Multiple Events
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Multiple Microbial Activities in Complex Systems
Modeling Complex Systems
Conventional and High Purity Oxygen Activated Sludge
Step Feed Activated Sludge
Contact Stabilization Activated Sludge
Modified Ludzack–Ettinger Process
Four-Stage Bardenpho Process
Biological Phosphorus Removal Process
Sequencing Batch Reactor
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Stoichiometry, Kinetics, and Simulations of Anaerobic Biochemical Operations
Stoichiometry of Anaerobic Biochemical Operations
Kinetics of Anaerobic Biochemical Operations
Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Techniques for Evaluating Kinetic and Stoichiometric Parameters
Treatability Studies
Simple Soluble Substrate Model with Traditional Decay as Presented in Chapter 5
Simple Soluble Substrate Model with Traditional Decay in the Absence of Data on the Active Fraction
Use of Batch Reactors to Determine Monod Kinetic Parameters for Single Substrates
Complex Substrate Model with Lysis:Regrowth Approach to Decay as Presented in Chapter 6 (International Water Association Activated Sludge Model No. 1)
Using Traditional Measurements to Approximate Wastewater Characteristics for Modeling
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Applications: Suspended Growth Reactors
Design and Evaluation of Suspended Growth Processes
Guiding Principles
Iterative Nature of Process Design and Evaluation
Basic Decisions during Design and Evaluation
Levels of Design and Evaluation
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Activated Sludge
Process Description
Factors Affecting Performance
Process Design
Process Operation
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Biological Nutrient Removal
Process Description
Process Design
Process Operation
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Aerobic Digestion
Process Description
Factors Affecting Performance
Process Design
Process Operation
Study Questions
References

Anaerobic Processes
Process Description
Factors Affecting Performance
Process Design
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Lagoons
Process Description
Factors Affecting Performance
Process Design
Process Operation
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Theory: Modeling of Ideal Attached Growth Reactors
Biofilm Modeling
Effects of Transport Limitations
Effects of Multiple Limiting Nutrients
Multispecies Biofilms
Multidimensional Mathematical Models of Biofilms
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Biofilm Reactors
Packed Towers
Rotating Disc Reactors
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Fluidized Bed Biological Reactors
Description of Fluidized Bed Biological Reactor
Fluidization
Modeling Fluidized Bed Biological Reactors
Theoretical Performance of Fluidized Bed Biological Reactors
Sizing a Fluidized Bed Biological Reactor
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Applications: Attached Growth Reactors
Trickling Filter
Process Description
Factors Affecting Performance
Process Design
Process Operation
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Rotating Biological Contactor
Process Description
Factors Affecting Performance
Process Design
Process Operation
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Submerged Attached Growth Bioreactors
Process Description
Factors Affecting Performance
Process Design
Process Operation
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Future Challenges
Fate and Effects of Xenobiotic Organic Chemicals
Biodegradation
Abiotic Removal Mechanisms
Relative Importance of Biotic and Abiotic Removal
Effects of Xenobiotic Organic Chemicals
Experience with Xenobiotic Organic Chemicals
Key Points
Study Questions
References

Designing Systems for Sustainability
Defining Sustainability
Technologies to Achieve Greater Water Resource Availability
Technologies to Achieve Lower Energy and Chemical Consumption
Technologies to Achieve Resource Recovery
Closing Comments
Study Questions
References

Appendix A: Acronyms
Appendix B: Symbols
Appendix C: Unit Conversions
Index

 
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