Neural Plasticity and Memory

Neural Plasticity and Memory: From Genes to Brain Imaging

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Features

  • Explores the molecular mechanisms of brain plasticity, examining the impact of information storage and retrieval
  • Examines the synaptic communication elements identified as being susceptible to modification through experience
  • Discusses recent work in memory research including those involving brain imaging
  • Emphasizes the methodological and conceptual problems inherent at different levels of analysis
  • Provides an interdisciplinary review of research conducted on the neurobiology of memory
  • Summary

    A comprehensive, multidisciplinary review, Neural Plasticity and Memory: From Genes to Brain Imaging provides an in-depth, up-to-date analysis of the study of the neurobiology of memory. Leading specialists share their scientific experience in the field, covering a wide range of topics where molecular, genetic, behavioral, and brain imaging techniques have been used to investigate how cellular and brain circuits may be modified by experience. In each chapter, researchers present findings and explain their innovative methodologies.

    The book begins by introducing key issues and providing a historical overview of the field of memory consolidation. The following chapters review the putative genetic and molecular mechanisms of cell plasticity, elaborating on how experience could induce gene and protein expression and describing their role in synaptic plasticity underlying memory formation. They explore how putative modifications of brain circuits and synaptic elements through experience can become relatively permanent and hence improve brain function.

    Interdisciplinary reviews focus on how nerve cell circuitry, molecular expression, neurotransmitter release, and electrical activity are modified during the acquisition and consolidation of long-term memory. The book also covers receptor activation/deactivation by different neurotransmitters that enable the intracellular activation of second messengers during memory formation. It concludes with a summary of current research on the modulation and regulation that different neurotransmitters and stress hormones have on formation and consolidation of memory.

    Table of Contents

    SEARCHING FOR MEMORY IN THE BRAIN: CONFRONTING THE COLLUSION OF CELLS AND SYSTEMS, J.L. McGaugh
    One Hundred and Fifty Years of Controversy
    The Great Debate: What is Learned - Knowledge or Responses?
    Brain Systems and Forms of Memory
    Brain Systems and Memory Functions.
    Cells and Systems
    Two Centuries of Progress in Research on Brain and Memory
    References

    LONG-TERM POTENTIATION AND DEPRESSION AS PUTATIVE MECHANISMS FOR MEMORY FORMATION, M.L. Escobar and B. Derrick
    Introduction
    Long-Lasting Forms of Synaptic Modification: A Methodological Approach
    LTP and LTD: Triggering, Expression, and Maintenance Mechanisms
    Persistent Synaptic Plasticity: A Metaplastic Point of View
    The Role of Activity-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Brain Function
    Substrates of LTP and LTD - Structural Plasticity
    Neurotrophins and Synaptic Plasticity
    Experience-Dependent Modifications - Is LTP Involved in Learning and Memory?
    Outstanding Questions and New Directions

    MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY UNDERLYING LONG-TERM MEMORY FORMATION, V. Ramirez-Amaya
    Early Signals.
    Ca2+ and its transducer
    Immediate early genes.
    Trophic Factors.
    Conclusions

    MODIFICATION OF BRAIN CIRCUITS THROUGH EXPERIENCE, M.R. Rosenzweig
    Brain Plasticity Discovered through Serendipity
    Unexpected Discovery of Brain Plasticity
    Cerebral Effects of Experience Occur in All Species Tested
    Enriched Environments and the Brain
    Neurochemical Cascades Underlie Modification of Neural Circuits
    Acknowledgments
    References

    PRESYNAPTIC STRUCTURAL PLASTICITY AND LONG-LASTING MEMORY: FOCUS ON THE LEARNING-INDUCED REDISTRIBUTION OF HIPPOCAMPAL MOSSY FIBERS, J.L. Rekart, M.R. Holahan, and A. Routtenberg
    Learning And Structural Plasticity
    Hippocampal Granule Cell Axon Terminals And Learning
    Mechanisms Of Presynaptic Structural Plasticity
    The Presynaptic Disparity: Anti-Boutonism or a Biological Reality?

    ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION OF TASTE MEMORY, T. Yamamoto and Y. Yasoshima
    Introduction
    CTA paradigm
    Enhanced response to the CS
    Alteration of responses reflecting hedonic shift
    CS-US association
    Importance of amygdala in CTA formation
    Involvement of reward system
    Summary

    CHANGES IN NEUROTRANSMITTERS EXTRACELLULAR LEVELS DURING MEMORY FORMATION, M.I. Miranda
    Introduction
    The Free Moving Microdialysis Technique
    Acetylcholine Release During Motor Activity, Attention, and Novelty
    Novelty and Other Neurotransmitter Release
    Lesions and Blockade of Cholinergic Activity During Memory Formation
    Acetylcholine and Long Term Memory Tasks
    Noradrenaline Release During Memory Formation
    Glutamate and GABA Release During Memory Formation
    Conclusions

    REVERSIBLE BRAIN INACTIVATION OF BRAIN CIRCUITS IN LEARNING AND MEMORY RESEARCH, M. Gallo
    Introduction
    The Brain Lesion Approach and the Dynamic Nature of Learning and Memory Systems
    Reversible Inactivation Techniques
    Learning Behavioral Models and Reversible Inactivation Techniques
    Dissociating Independent Learning and Memory Processes
    Summary

    ENHANCED LEARNING PROTECTS THE BRAIN AGAINST THE EFFECTS OF AMNESIC TREATMENTS, R.A. Prado-Alcalá, R. Salado-Castillo, C. Quiroz, M.E. Garín-Aguilar, A. Díaz-Trujillo, S. Rivas-Arancibia, and G.L. Quirarte
    Introduction
    Protective Effect of Enhanced Training
    Two Models
    Conclusions
    References

    STUDIES ON SHORT-TERM AVOIDANCE MEMORY, M. Cammarota, L.R.M. Bevilaqua, J.H. Medina, I. Izquierdo
    Summary
    Introduction
    STM and LTM: Parallel or Sequential?
    The Role of the Hippocampus in Avoidance STM and LTM
    The Role of the Entorhinal Cortex in Avoidance STM and LTM
    The Role of Other Cortical Areas and of the Amygdala in IA's Memory
    Neurobiological Separation of Short and Long Term Avoidance Memory
    STM and LTM are Behaviorally Different
    The Biochemistry of Short Term Memory
    Pharmacological Analysis of IA's Working Memory
    Conclusions
    References

    MEMORY RECONSOLIDATION OR UPDATING CONSOLIDATION? C.J. Rodriguez-Ortiz and F. Bermudez-Rattoni
    Abstract
    The Consolidation Hypothesis
    The Reconsolidation Era
    On the Restraints of the Reconsolidation Hypothesis
    Are Consolidation and Reconsolidation the Same Process?
    The Reconsolidation Hypothesis Reconsidered: The Updating
    Consolidation Proposal
    Acknowledgments
    References

    MEMORY IMPAIRMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH STRESS AND AGING, C. Sandi
    The Concept Of Stress
    The Physiological Stress Response
    Stress And Memory Function
    Acute Stress And Memory Impairment
    Neurobiological Mechanisms Involved In The Acute Effects Of Stress On Memory
    Impairing Effects Of Chronic Stress On Cognitive Function
    Neurobiological Mechanisms Involved In The Deleterious Effects Of Chronic Stress On Brain And Behavior
    Stress And Aging
    Aging
    Memory Deficits In The Aging Human Population
    Neurobiological Mechanisms Associated To Age-Related Cognitive Decline In Humans
    Memory Deficits In Aged Rodents
    Aging And Structural And Functional Plasticity
    Conclusions
    References

    ADRENAL STRESS HORMONES AND ENHANCED MEMORY FOR EMOTIONALLY AROUSING EXPERIENCES, C.K. McIntyre and B. Roozendaal
    Introduction
    Stress Hormone Effects on Memory Consolidation
    Stress Hormones Selectively Enhance Memory Consolidation of Emotionally Arousing Experiences
    Involvement of the Amygdala in Mediating Stress Hormone Effects on Memory Consolidation
    Role of Emotional Arousal-Induced Noradrenergic Activation Within the Amygdala in Enabling Epinephrine and Glucocorticoid Effects on Memory Consolidation
    Conclusions

    NEURO-IMMUNE ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING, G. Pacheco-López, M.-B. Niemi, H. Engler, and M. Schedlowski.
    Abstract
    Introduction
    Phenomenon: The Association Between Exteroceptive and Immune Stimuli
    Theoretical Framework for Neuro-Immune Associative Learning
    Neurobiology of Neuro-Immune Associative Learning
    Biological Relevance of Neuro-Immune Associative Learning
    Clinical relevance of neuro-immune associative learning
    Summary and future perspective
    References

    HUMAN BRAIN IMAGING STUDIES OF EMOTIONAL MEMORY: UNCOVERING INFLUENCES OF SEX AND HEMISPHERE, L. Cahill
    Abstract
    Introduction
    The Amygdala-- Built to Modulate
    Human Subject Studies Relating Amygdala Activity to Emotional Memory
    An Aside on Sex Differences in the Brain
    Sex-Related Influences on the Amygdala Relation to Memory for Emotional Events
    Sex Difference in Human Amygdala Functional Connectivity at Rest
    Potential Relationship of the Sex-Related Amygdala Hemispheric Specialization to Hemispheric Global/Local Processing Bias
    Some Implications for Disease States
    Summary

     
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