Wildlife Habitat Management

Wildlife Habitat Management: Concepts and Applications in Forestry

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Features

  • Emphasizes increased communication between disciplines and cooperative approaches to management
  • Demonstrates the Landscape Management Systems Model for illustrating habitat change under alternative management approaches
  • Presents case studies using real data from varying forest types from across the United States and Canada
  • Includes more than 150 figures and examples from forests across North America
  • Discusses adaptive management and dynamic forest planning to meet habitat objectives
  • Summary

    In recent years, conflicts between ecological conservation and economic growth forced a reassessment of the motivations and goals of wildlife and forestry management. Focus shifted from game and commodity management to biodiversity conservation and ecological forestry. Previously separate fields such as forestry, biology, botany, and zoology merged into a common framework known as conservation biology and resource professionals began to approach natural resource problems in an interdisciplinary light.

    Wildlife Habitat Management: Concepts and Applications in Forestry presents anintegrated reference combining silvicultural and forest planning principles with principles of habitat ecology and conservation biology. With extensive references and case studies drawn from real situations, this book begins with general concepts such as habitat selection, forest composition, influences on habitat patterns, and the dynamics of disturbance ecology. It considers management approaches for specific habitats including even-aged and uneven-aged systems, riparian areas, and dead wood and highlights those approaches that will conserve and manage biodiversity. The author discusses assessment and prioritization policies, monitoring techniques, and ethical and legal issues that can have worldwide impact. Detailed appendices provide a glossary, scientific names, and tools for measuring and interpreting habitat elements. Writing in a species-specific manner, the author emphasizes the need to consider the potential effects of management decisions on biodiversity conservation and maintains a holistic approach throughout the book.

    Drawing from the author’s more than 30 years working and teaching in natural resources conservation, Wildlife Habitat Management: Concepts and Applications in Forestry provides a synopsis of current preservation techniques and establishes a common body of knowledge from which to approach the conservation of biodiversity in the future.

    Table of Contents

    Introduction
    What is Habitat?
    Habitat Function
    Habitat for Humans
    Forests as Habitat
    Historical Approaches to Managing Forests as Habitat
    Why Manage Habitat?
    Case Study: The Forests of British Columbia
    Vertebrate Habitat Selection
    Hierarchical Selection
    Density-Dependent Habitat Selection
    Relationship between Habitat Quality and Demographics
    Population Fitness
    Measuring Habitat Selection
    Proximate and Ultimate Cues to Habitat Quality
    Case Study: American Marten Habitat Selection
    Forest Structure and Composition
    Food and Cover in a Cellulose-Managed System
    Vertical Complexity
    Horizontal Patchiness
    Forage Availability and Quality
    Fruit Production
    Dead and Damaged Trees
    Tree Species and Invertebrate Associations
    Tree Size and Density
    Forest Floor Litter and Soil
    Proximity to Water
    Case Study: Plant Response to Herbivores, or Its a (Chemical) War out There!
    Physical and Cultural Influences on Habitat Patterns
    The Physical Environment
    Geology
    Topography: Slope, Aspect, and Elevation
    Soils
    Climate
    Hydrology
    Vegetation Patterns
    Cultural Effects on Habitat Patterns
    Land Use
    Climate Change
    Invasive Species
    Case Study: Passenger Pigeons, Humans, and Forests
    Disturbance Ecology and Habitat Dynamics
    Disturbance Size
    Disturbance Severity
    Disturbance Frequency
    Disturbance Frequency, Size, and Severity Relationships
    Stand Dynamics
    Stand Initiation
    Stem Exclusion
    Understory Reinitiation
    Old Growth
    Succession as a Continuum of Habitat Elements
    Successional Pathways
    Management Implications from Disturbances
    Silviculture and Habitat Management: Even-Aged Systems
    Silviculture as a Forest Disturbance
    Characteristics of Even-Aged Stands
    Considering the Capabilities of the Site
    Choosing a Regeneration Method
    Identifying Legacy Elements to Retain
    Site Preparation Effects on Habitat Elements
    Natural Regeneration and Planting Options
    Vegetation Management Effects on Habitat Elements
    Precommercial Thinning
    Commercial Thinning
    Fertilization
    Rotation Length: Ecological and Economic Trade-Offs
    Case Study: Douglas-Fir Plantation
    Silviculture and Habitat Management: Uneven-Aged Systems
    Characteristics of Uneven-Aged Stands
    Considering the Site Potential
    Uneven-Aged Regeneration Methods
    Natural Regeneration and Planting Options
    Uneven-Aged Stand Development
    Habitat Elements in Uneven-Aged Stands
    Vertical Structure
    Horizontal Diversity
    Forage and Browse
    Dead and Dying Trees
    Mast
    Challenges to Using Uneven-Aged Methods
    Nontraditional Management Approaches
    Case Study: Managing a Small Privately Owned Forest
    Desired Future Conditions
    Developing the Stand Prescription
    Case Study: Growing Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Habitat
    Species Background and Management Options
    Current Stand Condition
    Desired Future Condition
    Management Actions to Achieve the Desired Future Condition
    Monitoring Plans
    Budget
    Riparian Area Management
    Animal Associations with Riparian Areas
    Gradients within Riparian Zones
    Riparian Functions
    Riparian Buffers
    Managing within Streamside Management Areas
    Beavers—The Stream Managers? 
    Case Study: Riparian Area Management in a Patchwork Ownership
    Dead Wood Management
    Primary Cavity Excavators
    Secondary Cavity Users
    Log Users
    Patterns of Dead Wood Following Disturbance
    Changes in Dead Wood over Time
    Dead Wood during Stand Development
    Management of Tree Cavities and Dead Wood
    Live Cavity-Tree Management in Managed Stands
    Dead Wood Retention and Harvest System Considerations
    Creating Snags and Logs for Wildlife
    Monitoring Cavity Trees, Snags, and Logs
    Case Study: Managing Dead Wood in Oregon Forests
    Landscape Structure and Composition
    Defining the Landscape
    Habitat Quality at the Landscape Scale
    Living on the Edge
    Edge Geometry
    Habitat Fragmentation
    Habitat Area: Species–Area Relationships
    Case Study: Habitat Area or Pattern?
    Landscape Connections
    Dispersal
    Understanding the Probability of Successful Dispersal
    Connectivity and Gap-Crossing Ability
    Management Approaches to Connectivity
    Case Study: Matrix Management for a Wide-Ranging Species
    Approaches to Biodiversity Conservation
    What is Biodiversity?
    Setting Biodiversity Goals
    How Do We Conceptualize “Biodiversity” to be Able to Conserve It?
    Coarse-Filter Approaches
    Meso-filter Approaches
    Fine-Filter Approaches
    Challenges to Managing Biodiversity
    Spatial Scale
    Time
    Uncertainty
    Landscape Management Plans
    Establishing Goals
    Current Conditions
    Desired Future Conditions
    Pathways to DFCs
    Developing the Landscape Management Plan
    Policy Guidelines for HCPs
    General Structure of the Landscape Management Plan
    Considering Alternative Plans
    Finding Solutions to Land Management Planning Problems
    Plan Effectiveness
    Ecoregional Assessments and Prioritization
    Ecoregional Assessments
    Examples of Ecoregional Assessments
    Conducting an Ecoregional Analysis
    Assessing Patterns of Habitat Availability and Quality
    Prioritizing Management and Assessing Policies
    Coarse-Filter Approach
    Integrated Coarse- and Fine-Filter Approaches
    Fine-Filter Approaches
    Utility and Effectiveness of Ecoregional Assessments
    Viable Populations in Dynamic Forests
    Extinction Risks
    Goals of PVAs
    PVA Models
    Conducting a PVA for a Forest-Associated Species
    Examples of PVA Analyses
    Grizzly Bear
    Marbled Murrelet
    Northern Spotted Owl
    Model Errors and Uncertainties
    Poor Data
    Difficulties in Parameter Estimation
    Weak Ability to Validate Models
    Effects of Alternative Model Structures
    Interpreting Results from PVA Projections
    Monitoring Habitat Elements and Populations
    Adaptive Management
    Designing Monitoring Plans
    Selection of Response Variables
    Describe the Scope of Inference
    Describe the Experimental Design
    Sampling Intensity, Frequency, and Duration
    Monitoring Habitat Elements
    Monitoring for Species Occurrence
    Monitoring Trends
    Cause-and-Effect Monitoring Designs
    Are Data Already Available and Sufficient?
    Making Decisions with Data
    Examples of Approaches to Monitoring
    Monitoring Clonal Plants
    Monitoring the Occurrence of a Small-Mammal Species
    Monitoring Trends in a Salamander Subpopulation
    Monitoring Response of Neotropical Migrant Birds to Forest Management
    Monitoring Habitat Elements
    Forest Sustainability and Habitat Management
    Defining the Resources to be Sustained
    Scales of Sustainability
    Humans are Part of the System
    Forest Certification
    Effectiveness of Certification
    Regulatory and Legal Considerations
    International Laws and Agreements
    National Laws
    State Laws
    Municipal Policies
    Policy Analysis
    How Decisions in the United States Influence Habitat in the World?
    Should I Manage a Forest?
    What Does Restoration Mean?
    Human Requirements as Constraints on Goals
    Developing a Personal Management Philosophy
    Our Place on Earth
    Living Simply and Sustainably
    Leaving the World a Better Place
    Appendix 1: Common and Scientific Names of Species Mentioned in the Text
    Mammals
    Birds
    Amphibians
    Reptiles
    Insects
    Fish
    Plants
    Appendix 2: Glossary
    Appendix 3: Measuring and Interpreting Habitat Elements
    Methods
    Random Sampling
    Measuring Density
    Estimating Percent Cover
    Estimating Height
    Estimating Basal Area
    Estimating Biomass
    Using Estimates of Habitat Elements to Assess Habitat Presence
    Using Estimates of Habitat Elements to Assess Habitat Suitability
    Assessing the Distribution of Habitat across a Landscape
    References
    Index

     
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