Heteroepitaxy of Semiconductors: Theory, Growth, and Characterization

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Features

  • Provides the first full-length book devoted to the underlying principles of heteroepitaxial growth and characterization
  • Offers convenient access to critical data for designing heteroepitaxial growth processes
  • Presents useful diagrams, constants, and data in six convenient appendices
  • Includes nearly 200 illustrations, numerous examples, and a valuable list of  up-to-date references
  • Contains end-of-chapter problems to reinforce practical understanding
  • Summary

    Heteroepitaxy has evolved rapidly in recent years. With each new wave of material/substrate combinations, our understanding of how to control crystal growth becomes more refined. Most books on the subject focus on a specific material or material family, narrowly explaining the processes and techniques appropriate for each. Surveying the principles common to all types of semiconductor materials, Heteroepitaxy of Semiconductors: Theory, Growth, and Characterization is the first comprehensive, fundamental introduction to the field.

    This book reflects our current understanding of nucleation, growth modes, relaxation of strained layers, and dislocation dynamics without emphasizing any particular material. Following an overview of the properties of semiconductors, the author introduces the important heteroepitaxial growth methods and provides a survey of semiconductor crystal surfaces, their structures, and nucleation. With this foundation, the book provides in-depth descriptions of mismatched heteroepitaxy and lattice strain relaxation, various characterization tools used to monitor and evaluate the growth process, and finally, defect engineering approaches. Numerous examples highlight the concepts while extensive micrographs, schematics of experimental setups, and graphs illustrate the discussion.

    Serving as a solid starting point for this rapidly evolving area, Heteroepitaxy of Semiconductors: Theory, Growth, and Characterization makes the principles of heteroepitaxy easily accessible to anyone preparing to enter the field.

    Table of Contents

    Introduction
    Properties of Semiconductors
    Introduction
    Crystallographic Properties
    Lattice Constants and Thermal Expansion Coefficients
    Elastic Properties
    Surface Free Energy
    Dislocations
    Planar Defects
    Problems
    References
    Heteroepitaxial Growth
    Introduction
    Vapor Phase Epitaxy (VPE)
    Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)
    Silicon, Germanium, and Si1-xGex Alloys
    Silicon Carbide
    III-Arsenides, III-Phosphides, and III-Antimonides
    III-Nitrides
    II-VI Semiconductors
    Conclusion
    Problems
    References
    Surface and Chemical Considerations in Heteroepitaxy
    Introduction
    Surface Reconstructions
    Nucleation
    Growth Modes
    Nucleation Layers
    Surfactants in Heteroepitaxy
    Quantum Dots and Self-Assembly
    Problems
    References
    Mismatched Heteroepitaxial Growth and Strain Relaxation
    Introduction
    Pseudomorphic Growth and the Critical Layer Thickness
    Dislocation Sources
    Interactions between Misfit Dislocations
    Lattice Relaxation Mechanisms
    Quantitative Models for Lattice Relaxation
    Lattice Relaxation on Vicinal Substrates: Crystallographic Tilting of Heteroepitaxial Layers
    Lattice Relaxation in Graded Layers
    Lattice Relaxation in Superlattices and Multilayer Structures
    Dislocation Coalescence, Annihilation, and Removal in Relaxed Heteroepitaxial Layers
    Thermal Strain
    Cracking in Thick Films
    Problems
    References
    Characterization of Heteroepitaxial Layers
    Introduction
    X-Ray Diffraction
    Electron Diffraction
    Microscopy
    Crystallographic Etching Techniques
    Photoluminescence
    Growth Rate and Layer Thickness
    Composition and Strain
    Determination of Critical Layer Thickness
    Crystal Orientation
    Defect Types and Densities
    Multilayered Structures and Superlattices
    Growth Mode
    Problems
    References
    Defect Engineering in Heteroepitaxial Layers
    Introduction
    Buffer Layer Approaches
    Reduced Area Growth Using Patterned Substrates
    Patterning and Annealing
    Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (ELO)
    Pendeo-Epitaxy
    Nanoheteroepitaxy
    Planar Compliant Substrates
    Free-Standing Semiconductor Films
    Conclusion
    Problems
    References
    Appendix A: Bandgap Engineering Diagrams
    Appendix B: Lattice Constants and Coefficients of Thermal Expansion
    Appendix C: Elastic Constants
    Appendix D: Critical Layer Thickness
    Appendix E: Crystallographic Etches
    Appendix F: Tables for X-Ray Diffraction Index