This important book for industrial hygienists, toxicologists, and cancer risk specialists discusses the state of the art in risk assessment for urethane carcinogenicity. The book features more than 30 tables that provide time and dose data at a glance. Major topics include pharmacokinetics and metabolism, genotoxicity, carcinogenic effects, the mode of action of urethane tumorigenesis, and cancer potency estimation. This book is a "must have" for anyone involved with urethane carcinogenicity.
ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND. Physical and Chemical Properties. Production, Use, and Exposure. Regulatory Standards and Guidelines. PHARMACOKINETICS AND METABOLISM. Introduction. Absorption. Distribution. Metabolism. Elimination. Interactions Between Urethane and Other Compounds. Kinetics of Metabolism. GENOTOXICITY. Introduction. The Salmonella Test. Mammalian Cell Tests In Vitro. Mammalian Tests In Vivo. Biochemical Markers. Summary. CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS. Humans. Animals. MODE OF ACTION OF URETHANE TUMORIGENESIS. Introduction. Evidence that Urethane Acts as a Complete Carcinogen. Mode of Genotoxic Action of Urethane. Evidence for Involvement of Metabolic Activation. Suspect Active Metabolites of Urethane. The Effects of Alterations in Metabolism on Urethane Carcinogenesis. Mouse Strain Susceptibility to Urethane and Vinyl Carbamate. Alternative Hypotheses. Summary. CANCER POTENCY ESTIMATION. Derivations from Animal Data. Results of Analyses of Urethane Dose Response Data. Conclusion. APPENDIX 1. Introduction. FIGURES. TABLES. REFERENCES.