Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fourth Edition

Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fourth Edition

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ISBN 9780849338397
Cat# 3839

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Features

  • Explains numerous tests, including sensory, attribute, descriptive, and affective (consumer)
  • Defines several classic qualitative and quantitative methods for testing with consumers
  • Includes substantial explanations of "fuzzy front end" and Internet research techniques
  • Presents basic concepts for tabular and graphical summaries, hypothesis testing, and the design of sensory panels
  • Examines multifactor experiments and multivariate techniques, such as cluster analysis, regression analysis, and partial least-squares
  • Provides statistical tables as well as guidelines for choosing techniques and for reporting results
  • Summary

    From listing the steps involved in a sensory evaluation project to presenting advanced statistical methods, Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fourth Edition covers all phases of sensory evaluation. Like its bestselling predecessors, this edition continues to detail all sensory tests currently in use, to promote the effective employment of these tests, and to describe major sensory evaluation practices.

    The expert authors have updated and added many areas in this informative guide. New to this edition are expanded chapters on qualitative and quantitative consumer research and the Spectrum™ method of descriptive sensory analysis that now contains full descriptive lexicons for numerous products, such as cheese, mayonnaise, spaghetti sauce, white bread, cookies, and toothpaste. Also new in this chapter is a set of revised flavor intensity scales for crispness, juiciness, and some common aromatics. The book now includes an overview of Thurstonian scaling that examines the decision processes employed by assessors during their evaluations of products. Another addition is a detailed discussion of data-relationship techniques, which link data from diverse sources that are collected on the same set of examples.

    With numerous examples and sample tests, Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fourth Edition remains an essential resource that illustrates the development of sensory perception testing.

    Table of Contents

    Preface

    INTRODUCTION TO SENSORY TECHNIQUES
    Introduction
    Development of Sensory Testing
    Human Subjects as Instruments
    Conducting a Sensory Study

    SENSORY ATTRIBUTES AND THE WAY WE PERCEIVE THEM
    Introduction
    Sensory Attributes
    The Human Senses
    Perception at Threshold and Above

    CONTROLS FOR TEST ROOM
    Introduction
    Environmental Controls
    Product Controls
    Panelist Controls

    FACTORS INFLUENCING SENSORY VERDICTS
    Introduction
    Physiological Factors
    Psychological Factors
    Poor Physical Condition

    MEASURING RESPONSES
    Introduction
    Psychophysical Theory
    Classification
    Grading
    Ranking
    Scaling

    OVERALL DIFFERENCE TESTS: DOES A SENSORY DIFFERENCE EXIST BETWEEN SAMPLES?
    Introduction
    The Unified Approach to Difference and Similarity Testing
    Triangle Test
    Duo-Trio Test
    Two-Out-of-Five Test
    Same/Different Test (or Simple Difference Test)
    "A" - "Not A" Test
    Difference-from-Control Test
    Sequential Tests

    ATTRIBUTE DIFFERENCE TESTS: HOW DOES ATTRIBUTE X DIFFER BETWEEN SAMPLES?
    Introduction: Paired Comparison Designs
    Directional Difference Test: Comparing Two Samples
    Pairwise Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis-Comparing Several Samples in All Possible Pairs
    Introduction: Multisample Difference Tests-Block Designs
    Simple Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis-Randomized (Complete) Block Design
    Multisample Difference Test: Rating Approach-Evaluation by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
    Multisample Difference Test: BIB Ranking Test (Balanced Incomplete
    Block Design)-Friedman Analysis
    Multisample Difference Test: BIB Rating Test (Balanced Incomplete
    Block Design)-Evaluation by Analysis of Variance

    DETERMINING THRESHOLD
    Introduction
    Definitions
    Applications of Threshold Determinations

    SELECTION AND TRAINING OF PANEL MEMBERS
    Introduction
    Panel Development
    Selection and Training for Difference Tests
    Selection and Training of Panelists for Descriptive Testing
    Panel Performance and Motivation
    Appendix 1: Prescreening Questionnaires
    Appendix 2: Panel Leadership Advice

    DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
    Definition
    Field of Application
    Components of Descriptive Analysis
    Commonly Used Descriptive Test Methods
    Application of Descriptive Analysis Panel Data

    THE SPECTRUM™ DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS METHOD
    Designing a Descriptive Procedure
    Myths about the Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Method
    Terminology
    Intensity
    Other Options
    Modified Short-Version Spectrum Descriptive Procedures for Quality Assurance, Shelf-Life Studies, etc.
    Appendix 1: Spectrum Terminology for Descriptive Analysis
    Appendix 2: Spectrum Intensity Scales for Descriptive Analysis
    Appendix 3: A Streamlined Approach to Spectrum References
    Appendix 4: Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Product Lexicons
    Appendix 5: Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Examples of Full Product Descriptions
    Appendix 6: Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Training Exercises

    AFFECTIVE TESTS: CONSUMER TESTS AND IN-HOUSE PANEL ACCEPTANCE TESTS
    Purpose and Applications
    The Subjects/Consumers in Affective Tests
    Choice of Test Location
    Affective Test Methods-Fuzzy Front End
    Affective Methods: Qualitative
    Affective Methods: Quantitative
    Internet Research
    Using Other Sensory Methods to Uncover Insights
    Appendix 1: Screeners for Consumer Studies-Focus Group, CLT, and HUT
    Appendix 2: Discussion Guide-Group or One-on-One Interviews
    Appendix 3: Questionnaires for Consumer Studies
    Appendix 4: Protocol Design for Consumer Studies
    Appendix 5: Additional Fuzzy Front End References

    BASIC STATISTICAL METHODS
    Introduction
    Summarizing Sensory Data
    Statistical Hypothesis Testing
    Thurstonian Scaling
    The Statistical Design of Sensory Panel Studies
    Appendix on Probability

    ADVANCED STATISTICAL METHODS
    Introduction
    Data Relationships
    Preference Mapping
    The Treatment Structure of an Experimental Design

    GUIDELINES FOR CHOICE OF TECHNIQUE
    Introduction

    GUIDELINES FOR REPORTING RESULTS
    Introduction
    Summary
    Objective
    Experimental
    Results and Discussion

    STATISTICAL TABLES

    Index

    References appear at the end of each chapter.

    Editorial Reviews

    Praise for the Third Edition
    "…very comprehensive … the authors have updated statistical theory, expanded descriptive lexicon related to the Spectrum™ method, cross-referenced other recently published texts in the field, and devoted discussion to relationships between sensory, instrumental, and consumer data … . The third edition is worth updating one's library, for a number of reasons … including techniques to better understand data relationships (sensory-consumer, sensory-instrumental)."
    -Food Technology

    For the Fourth Edition
    "…a very useful book for those that are active in descriptive sensory science…if you are actively involved in sensory science you cannot afford to miss this book, even if you already have a previous Edition."
    --Dr. Johann W. Wiechers in IFSCC Magazine, Vol. 10, No. 1

    "This textbook is set at a level that will provide fresh insight into the world of sensory evaluation of consumer products to both experienced and naïve sensory analysts. The style is easy to read yet conveys sophisticated ideas in a readily assimilated manner . . . The book is nicely presented with a wealth of tables and figures that provide appropriate support for the text. References are adequate, and the appendices are very useful. I have no reservations in recommending this book to all with an interest in sensory evaluation techniques."

    – D. D. Muir, in Society of Dairy Technology, Nov 2007, Vol. 60, No. 4