Explains numerous tests, including sensory, attribute, descriptive, and affective (consumer) Defines several classic qualitative and quantitative methods for testing with consumersIncludes substantial explanations of "fuzzy front end" and Internet research techniquesPresents basic concepts for tabular and graphical summaries, hypothesis testing, and the design of sensory panelsExamines multifactor experiments and multivariate techniques, such as cluster analysis, regression analysis, and partial least-squaresProvides statistical tables as well as guidelines for choosing techniques and for reporting results
From listing the steps involved in a sensory evaluation project to presenting advanced statistical methods, Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fourth Edition covers all phases of sensory evaluation. Like its bestselling predecessors, this edition continues to detail all sensory tests currently in use, to promote the effective employment of these tests, and to describe major sensory evaluation practices.
The expert authors have updated and added many areas in this informative guide. New to this edition are expanded chapters on qualitative and quantitative consumer research and the Spectrum™ method of descriptive sensory analysis that now contains full descriptive lexicons for numerous products, such as cheese, mayonnaise, spaghetti sauce, white bread, cookies, and toothpaste. Also new in this chapter is a set of revised flavor intensity scales for crispness, juiciness, and some common aromatics. The book now includes an overview of Thurstonian scaling that examines the decision processes employed by assessors during their evaluations of products. Another addition is a detailed discussion of data-relationship techniques, which link data from diverse sources that are collected on the same set of examples.
With numerous examples and sample tests, Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fourth Edition remains an essential resource that illustrates the development of sensory perception testing.
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION TO SENSORY TECHNIQUES
Development of Sensory Testing
Human Subjects as Instruments
Conducting a Sensory Study
SENSORY ATTRIBUTES AND THE WAY WE PERCEIVE THEM
The Human Senses
Perception at Threshold and Above
CONTROLS FOR TEST ROOM
FACTORS INFLUENCING SENSORY VERDICTS
Poor Physical Condition
OVERALL DIFFERENCE TESTS: DOES A SENSORY DIFFERENCE EXIST BETWEEN SAMPLES?
The Unified Approach to Difference and Similarity Testing
Same/Different Test (or Simple Difference Test)
"A" - "Not A" Test
ATTRIBUTE DIFFERENCE TESTS: HOW DOES ATTRIBUTE X DIFFER BETWEEN SAMPLES?
Introduction: Paired Comparison Designs
Directional Difference Test: Comparing Two Samples
Pairwise Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis-Comparing Several Samples in All Possible Pairs
Introduction: Multisample Difference Tests-Block Designs
Simple Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis-Randomized (Complete) Block Design
Multisample Difference Test: Rating Approach-Evaluation by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Multisample Difference Test: BIB Ranking Test (Balanced Incomplete
Block Design)-Friedman Analysis
Multisample Difference Test: BIB Rating Test (Balanced Incomplete
Block Design)-Evaluation by Analysis of Variance
Applications of Threshold Determinations
SELECTION AND TRAINING OF PANEL MEMBERS
Selection and Training for Difference Tests
Selection and Training of Panelists for Descriptive Testing
Panel Performance and Motivation
Appendix 1: Prescreening Questionnaires
Appendix 2: Panel Leadership Advice
DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
Field of Application
Components of Descriptive Analysis
Commonly Used Descriptive Test Methods
Application of Descriptive Analysis Panel Data
THE SPECTRUM™ DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS METHOD
Designing a Descriptive Procedure
Myths about the Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Method
Modified Short-Version Spectrum Descriptive Procedures for Quality Assurance, Shelf-Life Studies, etc.
Appendix 1: Spectrum Terminology for Descriptive Analysis
Appendix 2: Spectrum Intensity Scales for Descriptive Analysis
Appendix 3: A Streamlined Approach to Spectrum References
Appendix 4: Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Product Lexicons
Appendix 5: Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Examples of Full Product Descriptions
Appendix 6: Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Training Exercises
AFFECTIVE TESTS: CONSUMER TESTS AND IN-HOUSE PANEL ACCEPTANCE TESTS
Purpose and Applications
The Subjects/Consumers in Affective Tests
Choice of Test Location
Affective Test Methods-Fuzzy Front End
Affective Methods: Qualitative
Affective Methods: Quantitative
Using Other Sensory Methods to Uncover Insights
Appendix 1: Screeners for Consumer Studies-Focus Group, CLT, and HUT
Appendix 2: Discussion Guide-Group or One-on-One Interviews
Appendix 3: Questionnaires for Consumer Studies
Appendix 4: Protocol Design for Consumer Studies
Appendix 5: Additional Fuzzy Front End References
BASIC STATISTICAL METHODS
Summarizing Sensory Data
Statistical Hypothesis Testing
The Statistical Design of Sensory Panel Studies
Appendix on Probability
ADVANCED STATISTICAL METHODS
The Treatment Structure of an Experimental Design
GUIDELINES FOR CHOICE OF TECHNIQUE
GUIDELINES FOR REPORTING RESULTS
Results and Discussion
References appear at the end of each chapter.
Praise for the Third Edition
"…very comprehensive … the authors have updated statistical theory, expanded descriptive lexicon related to the Spectrum™ method, cross-referenced other recently published texts in the field, and devoted discussion to relationships between sensory, instrumental, and consumer data … . The third edition is worth updating one's library, for a number of reasons … including techniques to better understand data relationships (sensory-consumer, sensory-instrumental)."
For the Fourth Edition
"…a very useful book for those that are active in descriptive sensory science…if you are actively involved in sensory science you cannot afford to miss this book, even if you already have a previous Edition."
--Dr. Johann W. Wiechers in IFSCC Magazine, Vol. 10, No. 1
"This textbook is set at a level that will provide fresh insight into the world of sensory evaluation of consumer products to both experienced and naïve sensory analysts. The style is easy to read yet conveys sophisticated ideas in a readily assimilated manner . . . The book is nicely presented with a wealth of tables and figures that provide appropriate support for the text. References are adequate, and the appendices are very useful. I have no reservations in recommending this book to all with an interest in sensory evaluation techniques."
– D. D. Muir, in Society of Dairy Technology, Nov 2007, Vol. 60, No. 4