As a fabrication technology, welding presents a number of technical challenges to the designer, manufacturer, and end-user of the welded structures. Both weld residual stress and distortion can significantly impair the performance and reliability of the welded structures. They must be properly dealt with during design, fabrication, and in-service use of the welded structures.
There have been many significant and exciting developments on the subject in the past ten to fifteen years. Measurement techniques have been improved significantly. More importantly, the development of computational welding mechanics methods has been phenomenal. The progresses in the last decade or so have not only greatly expanded our fundamental understanding of the processes and mechanisms of residual stress and distortion during welding, but also have provided powerful tools to quantitatively determine the detailed residual stress and distortion information for a given welded structure. New techniques for effective residual stress and distortion mitigations and controls have also been applied in different industry sectors.
Processes and Mechanisms of Welding Residual Stress and Distortion provides a comprehensive summary on the developments in the subject. It outlines theoretical treatments on heat transfer, solid mechanics and materials behavior that are essential for understanding and determining the welding residual stress and distortion. The approaches for computational methods and analysis methodology are described so that non specialists can follow them. There are chapters devoted to the discussion of various techniques for control and mitigation of residual stress and distortion, and residual stress and distortion results for various typical welded structures are provided. The second half of the book looks at case studies and practical solutions and provides insights into the techniques, challenges, limitations and future trends of each application.
This book will not only be useful for advanced analysis of the subject, but also provide sufficient examples and practical solutions for welding engineers. With a panel of leading experts this authoritative book will be a valuable resource for welding engineers and designers as well as academics working in the fields of structural and mechanical engineering.
PART 1 PRINCIPLES
Understanding residual stress and distortion in welds: an overview
C Tsai, The Ohio State University, USA
Introduction. Thermal and mechanical processes during welding. Modeling welding processes. Predicting weld residual stresses and distortion. Conclusions. References.
Welding heat transfer
J Zhou and H Tsai, University of Missouri-Rolla, USA
Introduction. Arc welding. Laser welding. New welding processes. Modeling heat transfer. Future trends. Further reading. References.
Thermal-metallurgical-mechanical interactions during welding
T Inoue, Fukuyama University, Japan
Introduction. Assumptions governing equations. Stress-strain constitutive equation. Heat conduction equation. Kinetics of phase transformation. Simulating stresses in welding process. Conclusions. References.
Measuring temperature during welding
J Pan, Tsinghua University, China
Introduction. Principles. Wavelength of the filter. Division of the temperature field. Design of the sensor. Calibration of the system. Measurement of the temperature field. Applications. References.
Modelling the effects of welding
P Michaleris, Pennsylvania State University, USA
Introduction. Theoretical issues and background. Modelling methods. Modelling material properties. References.
PART 2 APPLICATIONS
Measuring welding-induced distortion
B Chao, University of South Carolina, USA
Introduction. Techniques in distortion measurement. Small scale, local distortion measurement. Large scale, global distortion measurement. Special considerations. Acknowledgement. References.
Modeling distortion and residual stress during welding: practical applications
L Chen and Z Yang, Caterpiller Centre for Manufacturing Excellence - Europe, Belgium; and F W Brust, Battelle Memorial Institute, USA
Introduction. Challenges for industrial applications. Welding distortion simulation for large and complicated structures. Distortion control and mitigation for individual components. Residual stress prediction and mitigation for individual components. Weld thermo-fluid modeling. Assessing residual stress in pipe welds. Assessing residual stress in non-steel welds. References.
Mitigating welding residual stress and distortion
D Kim and F W Brust, Battelle Memorial Institute, USA
Introduction. History dependence of residual stress. Methods for controlling residual stresses and distortions. Distortion control with weld parameter control and weld sequencing. Constraint effects and distortion control with pre-cambering. Thermal methods for control. Other methods for in-process weld distortion and residual stress control. Post weld distortion and residual stress control. Conclusions. Acknowledgement. References.
Control of buckling distortion in plates and shells
Q Guan, Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, China
Introduction. Buckling distortions in plates and shells. Methods for removal, mitigation and prevention of buckling distortions. Thermal tensioning to prevent buckling. Low stress no-distortion (LSND) welding. Developments in LSND welding. References.