Given such problems as rejection, the interface between an implant and its human host is a critical area in biomaterials. Surfaces and Interfaces for Biomaterials summarizes the wealth of research on understanding the surface properties of biomaterials and the way they interact with human tissue.
The first part of the book reviews the way biomaterial surfaces form. Part Two then discusses ways of monitoring and characterizing surface structure and behavior. The final two parts of the book look at a range of in vitro and in vivo studies of the complex interactions between biomaterials and the body. Chapters cover such topics as bone and tissue regeneration, the role of interface interactions in biodegradable biomaterials, microbial biofilm formation, vascular tissue engineering and ways of modifying biomaterial surfaces to improve biocompatibility.
Surfaces and Interfaces for Biomaterials will be a standard work on how to understand and control surface processes in ensuring biomaterials are used successfully in medicine.
Pankaj Vadgama, IRC. Queen Mary, University of London, UK
PART 1 FORMING METHODS
Fundamental properties of surfaces
Peter Weightman and David S Martin, Physics Department and Surface Science Research Centre, The University of Liverpool, UK
Introduction. Experimental considerations. Surface characteristics. Active sites and kinetics. Controlling crystal growth: semiconductor technology. Heterogeneous catalysis. Real surfaces: theoretical advances. Real surfaces: experimental approaches. Insight into the biological activity of surfaces. Conclusion. References.
Control of polymeric biomaterial surfaces
Vasif Hasirci, METU Department of Biological Sciences, Turkey, Nesrin Hasirci, METU Department of Chemistry, Turkey
Introduction. Preparation of polymers. The solid state and structure. Polymer solvent interactions. The polymeric surface and surface-bulk difference. The general properties of a biomaterial surface. Modification of polymer surfaces. Surface analysis. Conclusion.
Organic thin film architectures: fabrication and properties
Mike C Petty, School of Engineering and Centre for Molecular and Nanoscale Electronics, University of Durham, UK
Introduction. Established deposition methods. Molecular architectures. olecular organization in thin films. Future trends. Further information. References.
Membranes and permeable films
Nicholas A Hoenich, School of Clinical Medical Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, Danish Mal, Chemical Engineering Department, Loughborough University, UK
Introduction. Materials and applications. Membrane characterization. Blood material contact. Biological events at the membrane and thin film blood interface. Conclusion. References.
Stable use of biosensors at the sample interface
Joseph F. Garigiuli, University of London, UK, Andrew Gill, University of Manchester, UK, Geoffrey Lillie, University of Manchester, UK, Monika Schoenleber, University of London, UK, J Pearson, University of Manchester, UK, G Kyriakou, University of London, UK, Pankaj Vadgama, University of London, UK
Introduction. Biosensor limitations. Biocompatibility. Materials interfacing strategy. Membrane systems used in biosensors. Microflows as surrogate, renewable barrier films. Microfluidics and biosensors. Conclusion. References.
Micro- and nanoscale surface patterning techniques for localising biomolecules and cells: the essence of nanobiotechnology
Zahida Ademovic and Peter Kingshott, The Danish Poymer Centre, Denmark
Introduction. Lithographic patterning with photons, particles and scanning probes. Soft lithographic techniques. Colloidal-based fabrication techniques. Template-imprinted nanostructured surfaces. Conclusion. References.
PART 2 MEASUREMENT, MONITORING AND CHARACTERISATION
Martin Mehlmann and Günter Gauglitz, University of Tuebingen,
Introduction. Surfaces. Optical detection methods. Biomolecular interaction analysis. Conclusion. References.
Christiane Ziegler, University of Kaiserslautern, and Institut für Oberflächen- und Schichtanalytik GmbH, Kaiserslautern, Germany
Introduction. Electron microscopies. Scanning probe microscopies. Optical microscopies. Future trends. Further information. References.
Adrian B Mann, The State University of New Jersey, USA
Introduction. Instrumentation. Data analysis. Thin films and coatings. Hard biological materials. Soft biological materials. Conclusion. Further information. References.
Surface plasmon resonance
Victor Hugo Pérez-Luna , Illinois Institute of Technology, USA
Introduction. Surface plasmon resonance phenomenon. Surface Functionalization. Applications. Conclusion. References.
Ellipsometry for optical surface study applications
Yonas M Gebremichael & Ken TV Grattan, City University, London
Introduction. Polarisation of light and ellipsometry. Ellipsometry. Interaction of light with matter. History of ellipsometry and polarisation control. Fibre based polarisation modulated ellipsometry. A high birefringence fibre polarisation modulation ellipsometry. Future trends. Sources of further information. References.
Jian R. Lu, Biological Physics Group, UMIST, UK
Introduction. Neutron reflection and deuterium labelling. Peptide interfacial assembly. Lysozyme adsorption: the effect of surface chemistry. Effect of size of globular proteins on their adsorption. Conclusion. Acknowledgments. References.
Sergey V Mikhalovsky, University of Brighton, UK, V. M. Gun’ko, Institute of Surface Chemistry, Ukraine, K D Pavey, University of Brighton, UK, Paul E Tomlins, National Physical Laboratory, UK, Stuart L James, University of Brighton, UK,
Introduction. Quartz crystal microbalance technique. Analytical applications of QCM. Combination of QCM with other techniques. Acoustic/piezoelectric sensors. Future development of piezoelectric sensors. Thermal gravimetry. Non-QCM adsorption methods. Dynamic contact angle measurements. Conclusion. References.
PART 3 SURFACE INTERACTIONS AND IN VITRO STUDIES
Interaction between biomaterials and cell tissues
Yasuhiko Iwasaki and Nobuo Nakabayashi, Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan
Introduction. Surface properties of biomedical materials. Surface analyses of biomedical materials. Design for non-biofouling surface. How to connect tissues with biomaterials. Conclusion. References.
Blood flow dynamics and surface interactions
Willem van Oeveren, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
Clinical application and problems of medical devices in contact with blood. Surface interactions of blood. Role of blood cells during flow: rolling of cells, effect of concentration of erythrocytes, expression of adhesive cell receptors. Biomaterial surface characteristics in relation to hemocompatibility and clinical applications. Hemocompatibility of metals, ceramics and polymers. Biological surface treatment to improve hemocompatibility. ISO 10993 requirements for testing of medical devices: simulation of clinical application including flow, blood composition, anticoagulants. Test models: static, low flow, arterial flow, pulsatile/laminar flow. Conclusion. References.
Cell guidance through surface cues
Angela K Vogt, Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Germany, Andreas Offenhäusser, Institute for Thin Films and Interfaces, Research Centre Jülich, Germany, Wolfgang Knoll, Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Germany
Introduction. Surface functionalization. Patterning of chemical surface cues. Synaptic connections in patterned neuronal networks: communication along predefined pathways. Conclusion. References.
Controlled cell deposition techniques
Chris Mason, University College London, UK
Introduction. In vivo and in vitro cell interactions. Photolithography. Soft lithography. Three-dimensional controlled cell deposition techniques. Future trends. Further information. References.
Biofolding in membrane separation systems
Zhangfeng Cui and Yinhua Wan, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, UK
Introduction. Membrane separation-concepts and applications. Fouling mechanisms and factors affecting fouling. Biofouling. Fouling Control. Conclusion. References.
PART 4 SURFACE INTERACTIONS AND IN VIRO STUDIES
Bioactive 3D scaffolds in regenerative medicine: the role of interface interactions
Julian R Jones, Larry Hench, Imperial College London, UK
Introduction. The need for biomedical materials and implants. Surgical procedures for bone repair. Surgical procedures in lung repair. A new direction: regenerative medicine. Bone regeneration. Tissue engineering of the lung. Conclusion. References.
Intravascular drug delivery systems and devices: interactions at biointerface
Kavitha S Rao, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nebraska Medical Center, USA, Amulya K Panda, National Institute of Immunology, India, Vinod Labhasetwar, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nebraska Medical Center, USA
Introduction. Biomaterials and biointerface. Intravascular drug delivery systems. Nanoparticles as an intravascular delivery system. Stents. Vascular grafts and catheters. Future trends. References.
degradation and microenvironmental outcomes
C C Chu, Cornell University, USA
Introduction. Chemistry of synthetic biodegradable biomaterials. In vitro degradation of synthetic biodegradable biomaterials. In vivo biodegradation of synthetic biodegradable biomaterials and cell/biomaterial surface interaction. Conclusion. References.
Microbial biofilms and clinical implants
Michael Millar, Barts and the London School of Medicine & Dentistry
Introduction. Epidemology and costs of infection associated with clinical implants. Microbiology of clinical implant infections. Molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm formation. Determinants of biofilm antibiotic resistance. Consequences of biofilm formation on clinical implants. Clinical implant infection. Prevention of biofilm formation on clinical implants. Further research. Information resources. References.
Extracellular matrix molecules in vascular tissue engine
Cay M Kielty, Daniel V Bax, Nigel Hodson, Michael J Sherratt, Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell-Matrix Research, UK
Introduction. Natural blood vessels. Vascular tissue engineering. Coating ECM molecules on surfaces – a cautionary tale. Biological seeding materials. ECM-regulated delivery of therapeutic growth factors. Future trends. References.
Fiona C Meldrum, University of Bristol, UK
Introduction. “Biologically-induced” and “organic matrix-mediated mineralisatiom”. Organic macromolecules. Control over crystal structure. Control over crystal orientation. Control over morphology. Control over mechanical properties. Conclusion. Further information. References.
On the topographical characterisation of biomaterial surfaces
Paul E Tomlins, R Leach, Pankaj Vadgama, Sergey Mikhalovsky and Stuart James, National Physical Laboratory, UK
Introduction. Biomaterials, surfaces and biocompatibility. What is a surface?. Surface measurement. Filters. Quantifying surface texture. Two dimensional profile data. Three dimensional data. Techniques for surface texture measurement. Traceability and calibration. Conclusion. References. Acknowledgements. Further reading.
PART 5 APPENDICES
Surface modification of polymers to enhance biocompatibility
Mehdi Tavakoli, The Welding Institute, UK
Introduction. Polymers in medical applications. Biocompatibility. Surface modification techniques. Future trends. Acknowledgements. References.
Issues concerning the use of assays of cell adhesion to biomaterials
Stuart L James and Sergey Mikhalovsky, University of Brighton, UK, Pankaj Vadgama, University of London, UK and Paul E Tomlins, National Physical Laboratories, UK
Introduction. Measurement objectives. Issues of interpretation of adhesion measurements. Sources of variability in adhesion assays. Methods of assaying cell adhesion in current use. Conclusion. References.
Protein adsorption to surfaces and interfaces
Bruce Milthorpe, University of New South Wales, Australia
Introduction. Classification of biomaterials surfaces and interfaces. Non-specific adsorption to hard surfaces. General rules of non-specific adsorption to flat surfaces. Non-specific adsorption to ‘soft’ surfaces. Non-specific adsorption to penetrable surfaces and interfaces. Future trends. References.
“… explores the classification, production, and applications of biodegradable polymers. … this comprehensive volume explores the different aspects of biodegradable polymers from fundamental issues to industrial applications, and would be highly useful for all the individuals working in the area of polymers. It may not only support research and development but may also be suitable for teaching.”
— John F. Kennedy, Parmjit S. Panesar, Chembiotech Laboratories, Institute of Research and Development, University of Birmingham Research Park, UK, in Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 64, 2006