Introduction to Spintronics

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Features

  • Provides a comprehensive introduction to spintronics, the fastest growing area of electronics
  • Compares the advantages of spin versus charge for electrical devices such as transistors and logic systems
  • Assumes little prior background, only basic device physics and quantum mechanics
  • Contains numerous examples and problems for practical illustration of the wide range of topics presented
Includes solutions to sample problems within the text as well as a separate solutions manual, available with qualifying course adoptions

Summary

Using spin to replace or augment the role of charge in signal processing devices, computing systems and circuits may improve speed, power consumption, and device density in some cases—making the study of spinone of the fastest-growing areas in micro- and nanoelectronics. With most of the literature on the subject still highly advanced and heavily theoretical, the demand for a practical introduction to the concepts relating to spin has only now been filled.

Explains effects such as giant magnetoresistance, the subject of the 2007 Nobel Prize in physics

Introduction to Spintronics is an accessible, organized, and progressive presentation of the quantum mechanical concept of spin. The authors build a foundation of principles and equations underlying the physics, transport, and dynamics of spin in solid state systems. They explain the use of spin for encoding qubits in quantum logic processors; clarify how spin-orbit interaction forms the basis for certain spin-based devices such as spintronic field effect transistors; and discuss the effects of magnetic fields on spin-based device performance.

Covers active hybrid spintronic devices, monolithic spintronic devices, passive spintronic devices, and devices based on the giant magnetoresistance effect

The final chapters introduce the burgeoning field of spin-based reversible logic gates, spintronic embodiments of quantum computers, and other topics in quantum mechanics that have applications in spintronics. An Introduction to Spintronics provides the knowledge and understanding of the field needed to conduct independent research in spintronics.

Table of Contents

The Early History of Spin
Spin
The Bohr Planetary Model and Space Quantization
The Birth of "Spin"
The Stern-Gerlach Experiment
The Advent of Spintronics

The Quantum Mechanics of Spin
Pauli Spin Matrices
The Pauli Equation and Spinors
More on the Pauli Equation
Extending the Pauli Equation - the Dirac Equation
The Time Independent Dirac Equation
Appendix

The Bloch Sphere
The Spinor and the "Qubit"
The Bloch Sphere Concept

Evolution of a Spinor
Spin-1/2 Particle in a Constant Magnetic Field: Larmor Precession
Preparing to Derive the Rabi Formula
The Rabi Formula

The Density Matrix
The Density Matrix Concept: Case of a Pure State
Properties of the Density Matrix
Pure Versus Mixed State
Concept of the Bloch Ball
Time Evolution of the Density Matrix: Case of Mixed State
The Relaxation Times T1 and T2 and the Bloch Equations

Spin Orbit Interaction
Spin Orbit Interaction in a Solid

Magneto-Electric Sub-Bands in Quantum Confined Structures in the Presence of Spin-Orbit Interaction
Dispersion Relations of Spin Resolved Magneto-Electric Subbands and Eigenspinors in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in the Presence of Spin-Orbit Interaction
Dispersion Relations of Spin Resolved Magneto-Electric Subbands and Eigenspinors in a One-Dimensional Electron Gas in the Presence of Spin-Orbit Interaction
Magnetic Field Perpendicular to Wire Axis and the Electric Field Causing Rashba Effect
Eigenenergies of Spin Resolved Subbands and Eigenspinors in a Quantum Dot in the Presence of Spin-Orbit Interaction
Why Are the Dispersion Relations Important?
The Three Types of Hall Effect

Spin Relaxation
Spin Relaxation Mechanisms
Spin relaxation in a quantum dot
Is the Effective Magnetic Field due to Spin-Orbit Interaction Proportional to v or k?
The Spin Galvanic Effect

Exchange Interaction
Identical Particles and the Pauli Exclusion Principle
Hartree and Hartree-Fock Approximations
The Role of Exchange in Ferromagnetism
The Heisenberg Hamiltonian

Spin Transport in Solids
The Drift-Diffusion Model
The Semiclassical Model
Concluding Remarks

Passive Spintronic Devices and Related Concepts
Spin Valve
Spin Injection Efficiency
Hysteresis in Spin Valve Magnetoresistance
Giant Magnetoresistance
Spin Accumulation
Spin Injection Across a Ferromagnet/Metal Interface
Spin Injection in a Ferromagnet/Semiconductor/Ferromagnet Spin Valve
Spin Extraction at a Ferromagnetic Contact/Semiconductor Interface

Hybrid Spintronics
Spin based transistors
Spin Field Effect Transistors (SPINFET)
Device Performance of SPINFETs
Power Dissipation Estimates
Other Types of SPINFETs
The Importance of the Spin Injection Efficiency
Transconductance, Gain, Bandwidth and Isolation
Spin Bipolar Junction Transistors (SBJT)
GMR-based Transistors
Concluding Remarks

Monolithic Spintronics
Monolithic Spintronics
Reading and Writing Single Spin
Single Spin Logic
Energy Dissipation Issues
Comparison Between Hybrid and Monolithic Spintronics
Concluding Remarks

Quantum Computing with Spins
The Quantum Inverter
Can the NAND Gate Be Switched Without Dissipating Energy?
Universal Reversible Gate: The Toffoli-Fredkin Gate
A-Matrix
Quantum Gates
Qubits
Superposition States
Quantum Parallelism
Universal Quantum Gates
A 2-Qubit "Spintronic" Universal Quantum Gate
Conclusion

A Quantum Mechanics Primer
Blackbody Radiation and Quantization of Electromagnetic Energy
The Concept of the Photon
Wave-Particle Duality and the De Broglie Wavelength
Postulates of Quantum Mechanics
Some Elements of Semiconductor Physics: Particular Applications in Nanostructures
The Rayleigh-Ritz Variational Procedure
The Transfer Matrix Formalism