New Materials, Processes, and Methods Technology

New Materials, Processes, and Methods Technology

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Features

  • Describes how to make sound engineering and economic decisions in the development and manufacture of satisfactory products
  • Reflects the increased variety and combinations available in materials today
  • Presents a detailed account of the most practical developmental fabrication methods to date
  • Illustrates how materials can be used to protect mechanical and electronic structures from wear and other damage
  • Provides information necessary to evaluate the potential of the material and the economics of processing and replacement
  • Discusses nanocrystalline materials, ceramics technology, thin films and chemical vapor deposition, coatings, nanopowders, MEMS, fuel cells, biocomposites, and more
  • Includes relevant materials information for industrial, aerospace, safety, medical, automotive, energy, electronics, and mechanical and civil engineering applications
  • Summary

    Materials selection is a crucial factor in determining the cost, quality, and corrosion protection for every engineering project. The variety of increasingly durable materials and their combinations, coupled with the rise of new and more critical service requirements and the demand for lower costs, have expanded upon trial-and-error criteria into methodical, multi-dimensional approaches to materials selection.

    An invaluable resource that analyzes materials from a microscopic perspective as well as a macroscopic standpoint, New Materials, Processes, and Methods Technology is a practical guide to matching and applying the material or materials with the right combination of properties in order to meet your design and service conditions. The book presents an update of existing materials and processes as well as newly developed materials that have been invented or changed by innovative techniques within the past decade. It details recent research, various analytical methods, key material and design considerations, fabrication methods, and developmental processes. Each section covers a material or material-family and the techniques required for practical applications.

    Anticipating future trends and prospects, the book also examines the foundations to several innovative technologies, including the potential of tailor-made materials, various types of fuel cells, and the properties of FGMs in current and future metallic and non-metallic systems and models. In its final chapter, the book highlights processes that are poised for production as well as prospects still in experimentation and testing phases. New Materials, Processes, and Methods Technology provides today's scientists, technicians, and engineering departments devoted to resolving application requirements with performance properties using a well-executed material selection process.

    Table of Contents

    Introduction
    References

    Nanotechnology
    Nanoscience/Nanotechnology
    Nanofabrication/Nanoassembly
    Atomic Bit Processing
    Nanomaterials
    Synthesis: Metals/Intermetallics
    Sol-Gel Methods
    Compaction
    Silicon-Based Nanostructures
    Hybrid Semiconductors - Molecular Nanoelectronics
    Hybrid Circuits
    Nanophase Materials
    Producing Nanophase Particles
    Grain Boundaries/Size
    Nanostructured Oxides
    Nanostructured Nitrides and Carbonitrides
    Nanocomposites
    Background
    Some Typical Material Types and Processing Methods
    Modeling
    Polymer Nanocomposites
    Properties of PNCs
    Some Applications of Nanotechnology
    Films/Coatings
    Nanoelectronics
    New Bone Materials
    Shoes
    Biosensors/Computational Optoelectronics
    Molecular Electronics
    Inorganic Nanowires
    Lubricants
    Polyesters
    Cellulose Materials
    Automotive
    Protection of Food Supply
    Optics
    Building Blocks (Carbon Tubules)
    Motors
    Switches
    Rules and Measuring Devices
    Piezoceramics
    Clothing
    Clusters
    Cosmetics
    Nanowire Arrays
    Nanobatteries
    Future and Potential
    Challenges
    Self-Assembly
    Next Decade

    Carbon-Carbon Composites
    Introduction
    Graphite and Carbon-Carbon Composites
    Carbon Fiber and Matrix Materials
    Carbon Fibers
    Matrix Materials
    Thermosetting Resins
    Tar Pitch Resins
    Carbon Fiber Structure
    Rayon-Based Carbon Fibers
    Pan-Based Carbon Fibers
    Pitch-Derived Carbon Fibers
    Fiber Structure and Architecture
    Weaving
    Multidirectional Preforms
    Braiding
    Matrix Precursors
    C/C Significant Properties
    Mechanical Properties
    High-Temperature Mechanical Properties
    Fatigue Properties
    Fracture Toughness
    Thermal Properties
    Processing Effects on Mechanical Properties
    Oxidation Protection
    Low-Temperature Protection (up to 1000ºC)
    Protection up to 1800ºC
    Protection Beyond 1800ºC
    NDE of Coatings
    Fabrication Processes/Techniques
    Mechanical Fastening
    Brazing
    High-Energy Electron Beam (HEEB)
    Applications
    Brakes and Clutches
    Pistons
    Rocket Motors
    Heat Shields (Thermal Protection Systems)
    Aero-Engine Components
    Biomedical Devices
    Industrial and Miscellaneous Applications
    Reflective Panels
    Ion-Accelerator Grids
    Glass Making
    High-Temperature Mechanical Fasteners
    Molds for Forming Superplastic Metals
    Hot Press Dies
    Hot Gas Ducts
    Furnace Heating Elements and Charging Stages
    Summary

    Shape Memory Alloys/Effect
    Introduction
    One-Way Shape Memory Effect
    Two-Way Shape Memory Effect
    How It Works
    SMA Systems
    Fe-based Alloys
    Cu-based Alloys
    Ni-Ti Alloys
    Ternary Ni-Ti Alloy Systems
    Composite Materials
    Other Types of SMAs
    Hybrid Composites
    Material Forms
    Design Constraints and Considerations
    General Guidelines
    Material Processing Techniques
    Cu-Al-Ni-based SMA
    Fabrication Techniques
    Joining
    Fusion Welding of SMAs
    Solid-State Welding of SMAs
    Alternative Processes for Joining
    Superplastic Forming
    Forming
    Machining
    Design for Assembly
    Laser Machining
    SMA Applications
    Aeronautics/Aerospace
    Consumer Products
    Commercial/Industrial Safety
    Medical
    Automotive
    Industrial/Civil Engineering
    Reinforcing or Decommissioning Structures
    Power Generation System
    Miscellaneous
    Electronics
    Future Trends and Prospects
    Final Remarks on Future Prospects
    SMPs

    Nanostructured Materials (NSM)
    Structure and Properties of NSM
    Nanocrystals and Nanocrystalline Materials
    Nanocrystals
    Nanocrystalline Materials
    Nanocrystalline Processing
    Sintering
    CVS
    Nanocomposites
    Ceramics
    Sintering
    Other Processes
    Powder-Making
    Nanomanufacturing
    Nanocomposite Applications and Directions
    Automotive
    Coatings
    Gas Phase Condensation (GPC)
    MEMS
    Medical
    Textile/Clothing
    Micro Springs
    Computers
    Miscellaneous
    Nanoparticles
    Nanopowders
    Approaches to Powder Fabrication
    Densification and Treatment
    Applications
    Nanowires
    Nanobelts
    Nanofilms
    Nanocircuits
    Nanowhiskers
    Nanocapsules
    Nanospheres
    Nanofibers
    Nanoceramics/Shells
    Nanoantennas
    Nanoelectronics
    Hybrid Circuits
    Neuromorphic Networks
    Self-Evolution

    Powder Metallurgy (P/M)
    Introduction
    Definition
    Materials
    Titanium Alloys
    Intermetallics
    Composites
    Copper-Iron-Cobalt Alloys
    Rhenium
    Cermets
    Cemented Carbides
    Tungsten-Based Heavy Alloys
    Processes for Powder Production
    Status of MA
    Solid Solubility Processing
    Plasma Processing (PP)
    Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
    Novel Plasma Process
    Plasma Melting
    Plasma Discharge Spheroidization (PDS)
    Spray Compaction
    Other Innovative Advanced P/M Processes
    Warm Compaction
    Cold Forming
    Dynamic Magnetic Compaction
    Laser Manufacturing/Processing
    Processes for Part Fabrication
    Specialty Production Processes: Powder-Injection Molding
    What Is PIM?
    Design and Material Considerations
    Materials and Trends
    Another Specialty Production Process: Metal Injection
    Molding (MIM)
    Typical Applications

    Nanotubes
    Introduction
    Definition and Structure
    Growth and Fabrication
    Properties
    Mechanical Properties
    Composite-Reinforced Properties
    Electrical Properties
    Thermal Properties
    Other Properties
    Dialing-Up Properties
    Other Nanotube Materials
    Welding Nanotubes
    Applications
    DNA
    Military and Space
    Composites
    Medical
    Commercial Products and Fiber Optics
    Electronics
    Future Potential

    Functionally Gradient Materials
    Introduction
    Definition and Design of FGMs
    Definition
    Design
    Material Combinations
    Fabrication/Processing Methods
    Joining FGMs
    Properties
    Applications
    Dental Implant
    Building Materials
    Ballistic Protection
    Temperature Sensors

    Microelectromechanical Systems
    Introduction
    What Are MEMS?
    MEMS Design
    Types of MEMS
    Fabrication
    UV Lasers
    Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition
    Wafer-Level Membrane Transfer Process
    Micromachines
    Manufacturing MEMS
    Applications
    Future Potential
    Packaging Advancements
    Future Work

    Fuel Cells
    Introduction
    What is a Fuel Cell?
    Major Types and Operations
    Proton Exchange Membrane
    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
    Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)
    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC)
    Other Fuel Cells
    Applications in Transportation
    Automotive
    Motorcycles, Scooters, and Water Taxis
    Locomotives, Submarines, Ferries, and Yachts
    Trucks and Buses
    Auxiliary Power Units
    Applications in Commercial Sector
    Cell Phones/Computers
    DC Rotary Motors
    Office Buildings/Residential Homes/Hotels
    Communications Equipment
    Forklifts
    Power Plant
    Medical Implants
    Power Supply Equipment
    Life-Cycle Cost Savings
    Musical Band
    Sailboats/Powerboats
    Future

    Liquid Crystal Polymers/Interpenetrating Network for Polymers/Interpenetrating Phase Ceramics
    Liquid Crystal Polymers (LCP)
    Introduction
    Types (Classes) and Properties
    Properties Especially Affecting Design
    Properties and How They Affect Molding
    Other Properties
    Processing
    Applications
    Interpenetrating Network (IPN)
    Introduction
    Types
    Processes
    Applications
    Interpenetrating Phase Ceramics (IPCs)

    Processes and Fabrication
    Introduction
    Composite Processes
    Dry Process for PI/C and B: Fiber Tape
    Metal Matrix Composites (MMC)
    RTM/CoRTM/VARTM/RARTM
    Infusion Processes: Resin Film Infusion (RFI)/DIAB Method
    Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC)
    Metal Matrix Composites
    Advanced Fibers/Whiskers/Particulates
    Siboramic Fibers
    TiB Whiskers
    Biocomposites
    Crystaloy™ or CxA
    Laser Processes
    Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS)
    Peening
    Welding
    Surface Treatment
    Glazing and Cladding
    Coatings
    Trends
    Processes for Applying Coatings
    Thermal Spray Processes
    Metal Spray Processes
    Friction Stir Processes (FSP)
    Friction Stir Processing for Superplasticity
    Friction Stir Welding (FSW)
    Magnetic Pulse Welding (MPW)
    Ceramic Welding
    Ceramic Joining
    Adhesives
    Wire Bonding
    Nitrocarburizing
    Process
    Vacuum Carburizing
    Electrospinning
    Process
    Applications
    Spinning Spider Silk
    Press Forming Thermoplastics
    Ion Implantation
    Gelcasting
    Applications
    Robocasting
    Rapid Prototyping
    Plasma-Assisted Boriding
    Net-Shape P/M
    Rheocasting Processes
    SemiSolid Casting
    Investment Casting
    Single Crystals
    Single Crystal Ceramics
    Microwave Processing
    Drilling
    Casting and Sintering
    Flowforming
    X-Ray Inspection
    Microfocus X-Ray Inspection Systems
    Nanofocus X-Ray Inspection
    Future of X-Ray Inspection

    Index

    Editorial Reviews

    "Schwartz offers an advanced yet practical and modern book for upper-level undergraduates in materials science or engineering, or for graduate students."
    -J. Lambropoulos, University of Rochester