Soil and Water Chemistry: An Integrative Approach

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Features

  • Provides a comprehensive overview of the chemical and mineralogical characteristics and processes of soils
  • Explores the methodologies, analytical techniques, and computations used to express soil chemical properties
  • Utilizes environmentally and agronomically-based examples to highlight the dynamic nature of soil systems
  • Provides a complete overview of water chemistry, with a detailed focus on hydration-hydrolysis, Lowry-Bronsted and Lewis acids and bases, sampling methods, and more
  • Examines the processes that distribute matter between solid and solution phases
  • Highlights the genesis, characterization, management, and properties of acidic, saline, and sodic soil systems
  • Contains more than 300 original figures and approximately 90 tables
  • Summary

    Traditionally the study of chemical principles as they relate to soil has been limited to the field of agronomics. Soil and Water Chemistry: An Integrative Approach, stands alone because it balances agricultural and environmental perspectives in its analysis of the chemical properties and processes that affect organic and inorganic soil substances.

    Written for soil science practitioners, researchers, and students, this book provides a comprehensive treatment of soil composition and reactions. Topics include: clay mineralogy, soil organic matter, mineral weathering and stability, ion speciation, solubility, ion exchange, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, acidity, alkalinity, and salinity. Each chapter concludes with numerous exercises that emphasize concepts and have practical, real-world applications.

    Table of Contents

    Contents
    THE SOIL CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT: AN OVERVIEW
    Phases and Chemical Processes in Soil
    Elements in the Soil Environment: Their Concentrations and Important Species
    Units and Conversions
    Heterogeneity of Soil Chemical Characteristics

    SOIL MINERALS


    Chemical Bonds
    Pauling’s Rules
    Silicate Classes
    Clay Mineralogy 
    Division 1:1 Phyllosilicate Minerals
    Division 2:1 Phyllosilicate Minerals
    Hydrous Metal Oxides
    X-Ray Diffraction Analysis

    CHEMICAL WEATHERING


    Hydrolysis and Oxidation
    Balancing Chemical Reactions
    Mineral Stability: Primary Silicates in the Sand- and Silt-Sized Fractions
    Mineral Stability: Clay-Size Fraction
    Weathering and Formation Characteristics of the Phyllosilicates
    General Weathering Scheme for the Phyllosilicates

    ORGANIC MATTER IN SOIL


    Determination of Soil Organic Carbon Concentrations
    Organic Functional Groups: a Review
    Nonhumic Substances
    Humic Substances
    Genesis of Humic Substances
    Chemical and Structural Characteristics of Humic Substances

    SOIL WATER CHEMISTRY


    Nature of Water
    Ion Hydration
    Electrolyte Solutions
    Hydrolysis of Cations
    Lowry-Brønsted Acids and Bases
    Complex Ions and Ion Pairs
    The ion association model
    Ion Speciation in Soil Solutions
    Qualitative Aspects of Ion Speciation
    Soil Solution Sampling Methodologies
    Methods of Chemical Analysis: Elemental Analysis

    MINERAL SOLUBILITY


    Mineral Solubility: Basic Principles
    Application of Mineral Solubility Principles: Impediments
    The Deviation of Ksp from Kdis
    Mineral Solubility and Solution Composition
    Stability Diagrams
    Predicting Solution Composition
    SURFACE CHEMISTRY AND ADSORPTION REACTIONS
    Surface Functional Groups and Complexes
    The Solid-Solution Interface: a Microscopic View        
    Quantitative Description of Adsorption
    Specific Retention of Metals and Ligands
    Ligand Effects on Metal Adsorption
    Organic Surface Functional Groups and Organic Molecular Retention Mechanisms
    Surface Complexation Models

    CATION EXCHANGE


    Cation Exchange: a Beginning for Soil Chemistry
    Qualitative aspects of Cation Exchange
    Cation Exchange Capacity and Exchange Phase Composition
    Quantitative Description of Cation Exchange
    OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS IN SOILS
    The Electron Activity
    Redox Potential Measurements
    Redox Status in Soils
    pe – pH Predominance Diagrams

    ACIDITY IN SOIL MATERIALS


    Measurement of Soil Solution pH
    Chemical and Biochemical Processes that Influence Soil Solution pH
    Acid-Neutralizing Capacity and the Quantification of Soil Acidity
    Neutralization of Soil Acidity
    Acid Generation and Management in Mine Spoils: the Oxidation of Pyrite

    SOIL SALINITY AND SODICITY


    Sources of Salts
    Diagnostic Characteristics of Saline and Sodic Soils
    Irrigation Water Quality Parameters and Relationships
    Genesis, Management, and Reclamation of Salt-Affected Soils

    Editorial Reviews

    “Overall, this book comprehensively presents the chemical and mineralogical characteristics and processes of soils. The breadth and depth of coverage … make this book one of the most thorough available. Numerous figures and tables help simplify the complex principles and reactions described. … The book will … be a comprehensive source of information for researchers and professionals [dealing with] the effect of soil-water chemistry, interactions, and processes that impact the environment. As usual, the publishers have done an excellent job of editing and preparing a high quality product.”
    — Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 33, No. 4, July/Aug. 2004

    “I congratulate the author on producing an outstanding up-to-date book that sets a higher standard for future environmental science textbooks. I would highly recommend anyone who is interested in the area of soil and water chemistry to purchase this book.”
    — Vadose Zone Journal, May 2005

    "Dr. Essington's book will be an outstanding choice as a textbook for those of us who teach soil chemistry, and will be an excellent resource for anyone working in the area of environmental soil science. He should be congratulated for producing a thorough, well-written book."
    — Dr. George F. Vance
    J.E. Warren Distinguished Professor of Energy and the Environment
    Department of Renewable Resources
    University of Wyoming, Laramie

    "I continue to be impressed by the quality of writing in this book. The author has a superb command of the subject matter and presents many difficult concepts in an easily understood manner. Material is covered in as complete a fashion as I have seen in any other soil chemistry textbook."
    — Dr. Gary Pierzynski, Kansas State University

    "I am so glad to see specific chemical reactions to describe the chemistry behind common methods. This is where I think Essington's textbook is really going to excel. …this book should also serve as an excellent 'working reference' for geochemists, environmental scientists, and consultants."
    — Dr. April L. Ulery
    New Mexico State University, Las Cruces