Nanoelectromechanics in Engineering and Biology

Nanoelectromechanics in Engineering and Biology

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Features

  • Examines the manipulation of nanoparticles, from simple solid spheres to hypothetical nanomachines
  • Includes a comprehensive description of nanoscale dielectrophoretic techniques
  • Introduces the lab-on-a-chip concept and describes a range of techniques and applications
  • Contains how-to descriptions of building particle separators, electric field simulations, and methods for data analysis
  • Provides detailed descriptions of experimental setups, fabrication technologies, and simulation methods
  • Assumes only a calculus and high-school physics background
  • Summary

    The success, growth, and virtually limitless applications of nanotechnology depend upon our ability to manipulate nanoscale objects, which in turn depends upon developing new insights into the interactions of electric fields, nanoparticles, and the molecules that surround them. In the first book to unite and directly address particle electrokinetics and nanotechnology, Nanoelectromechanics in Engineering and Biology provides a thorough grounding in the phenomena associated with nanoscale particle manipulation.

    The author delivers a wealth of application and background knowledge, from using electric fields for particle sorting in lab-on-a-chip devices to electrode fabrication, electric field simulation, and computer analysis. It also explores how electromechanics can be applied to sorting DNA molecules, examining viruses, constructing electronic devices with carbon nanotubes, and actuating nanoscale electric motors.

    The field of nanotechnology is inherently multidisciplinary-in its principles, in its techniques, and in its applications-and meeting its current and future challenges will require the kind of approach reflected in this book. Unmatched in its scope, Nanoelectromechanics in Engineering and Biology offers an outstanding opportunity for people in all areas of research and technology to explore the use and precise manipulation of nanoscale structures.

    Table of Contents

    MOVEMENT FROM ELECTRICITY
    The Promise of Nanotechnology
    Electrodynamics
    Electrokinetics and Nanoparticles
    A Note on Terminology
    ELECTROKINETICS
    The Laws of Electrostatics
    Coulomb's Law, Electric Field and Electrostatic Potential
    Gauss', Laplace's and Poisson's Equations
    Conductance and Capacitance
    Polarization and Dispersion
    Dielectric Spheres in Electric Fields
    Forces in Field Gradients: Dielectrophoresis and Electrorotation
    COLLOIDS AND SURFACES
    Colloids
    The Electrical Double Layer
    The Gouy-Chapman Model
    The Stern Layer
    Particles in Moving Fluids
    Colloids in Electric Fields
    Electrode Polarization and Fluid Flow
    Other Forces Affecting Colloidal Particles
    ANALYSIS AND MANIPULATION OF SOLID PARTICLES
    Dielectrophoresis of Homogeneous Colloids
    Frequency-Dependent Behavior and the Crossover Frequency
    Double Layer Effects
    Dielectrophoresis vs. Fluid Flow
    Separating Spheres
    Trapping Single Particles
    Limitations on Minimum Particle Trapping Size
    Dielectrophoresis and Laser Trapping
    DIELECTROPHORESIS OF COMPLEX BIOPARTICLES
    Manipulating Viruses
    Anatomy of Viruses
    The Multi-Shell Model
    Methods of Measuring Dielectrophoretic Response
    Examining Virus Structure by Dielectrophoresis
    The Interpretation of Crossover Data
    Studying Non-Spherical Viruses
    Separating Viruses
    Unexpected Charge Effects
    DIELECTROPHORESIS, MOLECULES AND MATERIALS
    Manipulation at the Molecular Scale
    Manipulating Proteins
    Dielectrophoresis for Protein Analysis
    DNA
    Dielectrophoretic Manipulation of DNA
    Applications of DNA Manipulation
    Nanotubes, Nanowires and Carbon-60
    NANOENGINEERING
    Towards Molecular Nanotechnology
    Directed Self Assembly
    Device Assembly
    Electrostatic Self-Assembly
    Electronics with Nanotubes, Nanowires and Carbon-60
    Putting it all Together: The Potential for Dielectrophoretic Nanoassembly
    Dielectrophoresis and Materials Science
    Nanoelectromechanical Systems
    PRACTICAL DIELECTROPHORETIC SEPARATION
    Limitations on Dielectrophoretic Separation
    Flow Separation
    Field Flow Fractionation
    Thermal Ratchets
    Separation Strategies using Dielectrophoretic Ratchets
    Stacked Ratcheting Mechanisms
    Traveling Wave Dielectrophoresis
    Applications of Traveling Wave Dielectrophoresis
    ELECTRODE STRUCTURES
    Microengineering
    Electrode Fabrication Techniques
    Laboratories on a Chip
    A Note about Patents
    COMPUTATIONAL APPLICATIONS IN ELECTROMECHANICS
    The Need for Simulation
    Principles of Electric Field Simulation
    Analytical Methods
    Numerical Methods
    Finite Element Analysis
    The Method of Moments
    Commercial vs. Custom Software
    Determination of Dynamic Field Effects
    Example: Simulation of Polynomial Electrodes
    DIELECTROPHORETIC RESPONSE MODELING AND MATLAB
    Modeling the Dielectrophoretic Response
    Programming in MATLAB
    Modeling the CLAUSIUS-MOSSOTTI FACTOR
    Determining the Crossover Spectrum
    Modeling Surface Conductance Effects
    Multi-Shell Objects
    Finding the Best Fit
    MATLAB in Time-Variant Field Analysis
    Other MATLAB Functions
    APPENDIX A. A DIELECTROPHORETIC ROTARY NANOMOTOR: A PROPOSAL

    Editorial Reviews

    "Overall, this is the first book noted to unite and directly address particle electrokinetics and nanotechnology. Hughes provides a thorough description of the phenomena associated with nanoscale particle manipulation. … [A] significant amount of information on applications and background knowledge is provided for each technology described."
    - Micro/Nano, July 2004


    "Dr. Hughes' book…is unique in bridging the gap between key disciplines critical to the future of nanotechnology in the 21st century. The boundaries between disciplines are fast disappearing, but few textbooks have captured the need for providing students with a spectrum of information across the key areas of science and technology where it is predicted many new developments will take place. This is at the critical interface between nanoscience, mechanical and electrical/electronic engineering and biology. The many academic institutions that are in the process of setting up truly multidisciplinary departments and research groups will find this timely publication neatly fills what was until now a worrying vacuum."
    -Ottilia Saxl, CEO, The Institute of Nanotechnology

     
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