Instrumentation, Measurements, and Experiments in Fluids

Instrumentation, Measurements, and Experiments in Fluids

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Features

  • Provides extensive treatment of the operating principles and limitations of pressure and temperature instruments
  • Delivers concise coverage on the most effective use of wind tunnels
  • Explores hot-wire anemometers in a uniquely concise manner
  • Describes flow visualization techniques
  • Highlights in-depth discussion of analog methods
  • Begins each chapter with an introduction and concluding summary
  • Summary

    Mechanical engineers involved with flow mechanics have long needed an authoritative reference that delves into all the essentials required for experimentation in fluids, a resource that can provide fundamental review, as well as the details necessary for experimentation on everything from household appliances to hi-tech rockets.

    Instrumentation, Measurements, and Experiments in Fluids meets this challenge, as its author is not only a highly respected pioneer in fluids, but also possesses twenty years experience teaching students of all levels. He clearly explains fundamental principles as well the tools and methods essential for advanced experimentation.

    Reflecting an awe for flow mechanics, along with a deep-rooted knowledge, the author has assembled a fourteen chapter volume that is destined to become a seminal work in the field. Providing ample detail for self study and the sort of elegant writing rarely found in so thorough a treatment, he provides insight into all the vital topics and issues associated with the devices and instruments used for fluid mechanics and gas dynamics experiments. Extremely organized, this work presents easy access to the principles behind the science and goes on to elucidate the current research and findings needed by those seeking to make further advancement.
    Unique and Thorough Coverage of Uncertainty Analysis
    The author provides valuable insight into the vital issues associated with the devices used in fluid mechanics and gas dynamics experiments. Leaving nothing to doubt, he tackles the most difficult concepts and ends the book with an introduction to uncertainty analysis.

    Structured and detailed enough for self study, this volume also provides the backbone for both undergraduate and graduate courses on fluids experimentation.

    Table of Contents

    NEED AND OBJECTIVE OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
    Some Fluid Mechanics Measurements
    Measurement Systems
    Some of the Important Quantities Associated with Fluid
    Flow Measurements

    FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS
    Properties of Fluids
    Thermodynamic Properties
    Surface Tension
    Analysis of Fluid Flow
    Basic and Subsidiary Laws for Continuous Media
    Kinematics of Fluid Flow
    Streamlines
    Potential Flow
    Viscous Flows
    Gas Dynamics

    WIND TUNNELS
    Low-Speed Wind Tunnels
    Power Losses in a Wind Tunnel
    High-Speed Wind Tunnels
    Hypersonic Tunnels
    Instrumentation and Calibration of Wind Tunnels
    Wind Tunnel Balance
    Calibration of Supersonic Wind Tunnels
    Calibration and Use of Hypersonic Tunnels
    Flow Visualization
    Hypervelocity Facilities
    Ludwieg Tube

    FLOW VISUALIZATION
    Visualization Techniques
    Compressible Flows

    HOT-WIRE ANEMOMETRY
    Operating Principle
    Hot-Wire Filaments
    Constant Current Hot-Wire Anemometer CCA
    Constant Temperature Hot-Wire Anemometers
    Relation between Flow Velocity and Output Voltage
    Hot-Wire Probes
    Hot-Wire Bridge for Classroom Demonstration
    Effect of Compressibility
    Limitations of Hot-Wire Anemometer

    ANALOGUE METHODS
    Hele-Shaw Apparatus
    Electrolytic Tank
    Hydraulic Analogy
    Hydraulic Jumps (Shocks)
    Velocity Measurement
    Experimental Study
    Application of the Hydraulic Analogy
    to Supersonic Airfoils
    Experimental Study

    PRESSURE-MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
    Barometers
    Manometers
    Dial-Type Pressure Gauge
    Pressure Transducers
    Pitot, Static, and Pitot-Static Tubes
    Pitot-Static Tube Characteristics
    Factors Influencing Pitot-Static Tube Performance
    Pitot Probes
    Static Probe
    Pitot-Static Probes
    Yaw Effect in Compressible Flow
    Static Pressure Measurement in Compressible Flows
    Determination of Flow Direction
    Low-Pressure Measurement
    Preston and Stanton Tubes
    Sound Measurements
    Dynamic Pressure Gauges

    VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS
    Velocity and Mach Number from Pressure Measurements
    Laser Doppler Anemometer
    Measurement of Velocity by Hot-Wire Anemometer
    Measurement of Velocity Using Vortex-Shedding Technique
    Fluid-Jet Anemometer

    TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
    Temperature Scales
    Temperature Measurement by Thermal Expansion
    Temperature Measurements by Electrical Effects
    Practical Thermocouple Measurements
    The Resistance Temperature Detector
    Temperature Measurement with Pyrometers
    Temperature Measurement in Fluid Flows
    Temperature-Measuring Problems in Fluid Flows
    Dynamic Response of Temperature Sensors

    MEASUREMENT OF WALL SHEAR STRESS
    Measurement Methods

    MASS AND VOLUME FLOW MEASUREMENTS
    Direct Methods
    Indirect Methods
    Volume Flow Meter

    SPECIAL FLOWS
    Geophysical Flows
    Experiment on Taylor-Proudman Theorem
    Experiment on Ekman Layer
    Experiment on Spin-Up and Spin-Down
    Transition and Reverse Transition
    Measurement in Boundary Layers

    DATA ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING
    Data Acquisition Principle
    Data Conversion
    Personal Computer Hardware
    Data Acquisition Using Personal Computers
    Digitization Errors Due to A/D Conversion

    UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS
    Estimation of Measurement Errors
    External Estimate of the Error
    Internal Estimate of the Error
    Uncertainty Analysis
    Uncertainty Estimation
    General Procedure

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