A technical discussion that includes theory, research, and application, this book describes warning design standards and guidelines; aspects of law relevant to warnings such as government regulations, case/trial litigation, and the role of expert testimony in these cases; and international, health/medical, and marketing issues. Broken into thirteen major sections, the chapters cover theory, research, applications, and law, and many different perspectives on topics associated with warnings. The Selected Applications and Case Studies section highlights topics of interest and gives real world examples of problems and their solutions. No other book gives a more comprehensive treatment.
This text will appeal to those whose study, work, or research concerns the design of hazard communications by linguistic, symbolic, and auditory means. The blending of research, theory, and applications also make the book attractive to safety engineers, health and medical professionals, occupational safety specialists, consumer product and industrial equipment designers, government regulators of consumer products and industrial safety, documentation writers, and plaintiff and defense attorneys involved in product- and premises-liability claims.
Table of Contents
Contents: Series Foreword. Foreword. Preface. Part I: Introduction. M.S. Wogalter, Purposes and Scope of Warnings. D. Egilman, S.R. Bohme, A Brief History of Warnings. Part II: Research Methodology. T.L. Smith-Jackson, M.S. Wogalter, Methods and Procedures in Warning Research. D.M. DeJoy, K.A. Cameron, L.J. Della, Postexposure Evaluation of Warning Effectiveness: A Review of Field Studies and Population-Based Research. Part III: Modeling the Process. M.S. Wogalter, Communication-Human Information Processing (C-HIP) Model. M.R. Lehto, Human Factors Models. M.R. Lehto, Optimal Warnings: An Information and Decision Theoretic Perspective. Part IV: Source and Channel Predelivery Aspects. E.P. Cox III, M.S. Wogalter, Warning Source. H.H. Cohen, J. Cohen, C.C. Mendat, M.S. Wogalter, Warning Channel: Modality and Media. Part V: Visual Warnings. M.F. Lesch, Consumer Product Warnings: Research and Recommendations. G.K. Rouseau, M.S. Wogalter, Research on Warning Signs. M.S. Wogalter, N.C. Silver, S.D. Leonard, H. Zaikina, Warning Symbols. R.E. Dewar, Road Warnings With Traffic Control Devices. Part VI: Auditory and Active Warnings. E. Haas, J. Edworthy, An Introduction to Auditory Warnings and Alarms. J. Edworthy, E. Hellier, Complex Nonverbal Auditory Signals and Speech Warnings. J. Meyer, Responses to Dynamic Warnings. J.P. Bliss, C.K. Fallon, Active Warnings: False Alarms. Part VII: Postreception Processing. M.S. Wogalter, W.J. Vigilante, Jr., Attention Switch and Maintenance. H.E. Hancock, C.T. Bowles, W.A. Rogers, A.D. Fisk, Comprehension and Retention of Warning Information. B. Fischhoff, S. Eggers, Mental Models of Warning Decisions: Identifying and Addressing Information Needs. D.M. Riley, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Motivation. K.A. Cameron, D.M. DeJoy, The Persuasive Functions of Warnings: Theory and Models. M.J. Kalsher, K.J. Williams, Behaviorial Compliance: Theory, Methodology, and Results. Part VIII: Individual Differences and Extrinsic Factors. T.L. Smith-Jackson, Receiver Characteristics. A.G. Vredenburgh, I.B. Zackowitz, Expectations. C.B. Mayhorn, K.I. Podany, Warnings and Aging: Describing the Receiver Characteristics of Older Adults. T.L. Smith-Jackson, Culture and Warnings. A.G. Vredenburgh, J. Helmick-Rich, Extrinsic Nonwarning Factors. Part IX: Guidelines From Research. J. Frascara, Typography and the Visual Design of Warnings. E. Hellier, J. Edworthy, Signal Words. K.R. Laughery, Sr., D.P. Smith, Explicit Information in Warnings. Part X: Development Methods. S.L. Young, Hazard Analysis as Part of the Safety Information Development Process. G.M. Peckham, An Overview of the ANSI Z535 Standards for Safety Signs, Labels, and Tags. S.L. Young, J.P. Frantz, T.P. Rhoades, S.M. Hall, Development and Objectives of the ANSI Z535 Series of Standards for Safety Signs and Colors: A Historical Perspective. G.M. Peckham, ISO Design Standards for Safety Signs and Labels. D.A. Johnson, Practical Aspects of Graphics Related to Safety Instructions and Warnings. S.W. Deppa, U.S. and International Standards for Safety Symbols. M.S. Wogalter, V.C. Conzola, W.J. Vigilante, Jr., Applying Usability Engineering Principles to the Design and Testing of Warning Text. N.F. Glasscock, N.T. Dorris, Warning Degradation and Durability. Part XI: Regulations. N.M. Ostrove, Warning Information in the Labeling and Advertising of Pharmaceuticals. S.W. Deppa, Consumer Product Safety Commission: Development of Product Warnings. K.A. Monroe, G. Orr, Warnings and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. J.P. Foley, Regulatory Requirements for Motor Vehicle Warnings. A.K. Weyman, An Overview of the Principal U.K. Systems for Safety Warnings and Signage. Part XII: Civil Litigation. M.S. Madden, The Duty to Warn in Products Liability. M.S. Madden, The Quiet Revolution in Post-Sale Duties. M.S. Madden, Warning Duties for Risks to Children. K.R. Laughery, Sr., M.S. Wogalter, The Warning Expert in Civil Litigation. K.J. Williams, M.J. Kalsher, K.R. Laughery, Allocation of Responsibility for Injuries. D.P. Smith, K.J. Williams, M.J. Kalsher, Jury Decision Making in Civil Litigation: Compensatory and Punitive Awards. S.R. Bohme, D. Egilman, Consider the Source: Warnings and Anti-Warnings in the Tobacco, Automobile, Beryllium, and Pharmaceutical Industries. E.P. Cox III, Marketing Versus Warning. Part XIII: Selected Applications and Case Studies. B. Sherehiy, D. Rodrick, W. Karwowski, M.S. Wogalter, Design of Warnings for Physical Tasks: Slips, Trips, Falls, and Manual Materials Handling. D.P. MacKinnon, L. Nohre, Alcohol and Tobacco Warnings. V.L. Neale, T.A. Dingus, Motor Vehicle Warnings. R.B. Williamson, FIRE WARNINGS. H.H. Cohen, J. Pauls, Warnings and Markings for Stairways and Pedestrian Terrain. S.L. Young, J.P. Frantz, T.P. Rhoades, Revisions of Labeling for Personal Watercraft: Label Development and Evaluation. R. Goldsworthy, B. Kaplan, Warning Symbol Development: A Case Study on Teratogen Symbol Design and Evaluation. L.A. Morris, Pharmaceutical Risk Management. C.B. Mayhorn, M-S. Yim, J.A. Orrock, Warnings and Hazard Communications for Natural and Technological Disasters. M.L. Resnick, Risk Communication for Legal, Financial, and Privacy Agreements and Mass Media. M.S. Wogalter, C.B. Mayhorn, The Future of Risk Communication: Technology-Based Warning Systems. J.M. Miller, C. Parent, Appendix: Bibliography of Standards.