An Introduction to Quantum Optics

An Introduction to Quantum Optics: Photon and Biphoton Physics

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Features

  • Introduces the theory, ideas, and experimental techniques of quantum optics
  • Emphasizes applications in quantum information and quantum computing
  • Covers the quantum theory of light, basic theory of modern quantum optics, and measurement techniques
  • Develops the quantum theory of photons, biphotons, quantum coherence, and nonlocality
  • Includes sample problems and exercises

Summary

Authored by a highly regarded international researcher and pioneer in the field, An Introduction to Quantum Optics: Photon and Biphoton Physics is a straightforward overview of basic principles and experimental evidence for the quantum theory of light. This book introduces and analyzes some of the most exciting experimental research to date in the field of quantum optics and quantum information, helping readers understand the revolutionary changes occurring in optical science.

Paints a picture of light in terms of general quantum interference, to reflect the physical truth behind all optical observations

Unlike most traditional books on the subject, this one introduces fundamental classical and quantum concepts and measurement techniques naturally and gradually as it explores the process of analyzing typical experimental observations. Separating itself from other books with this uncommon focus on the experimental part of analysis, this volume:

  • Provides a general overview of the optical coherence of light without quantization
  • Introduces concepts and tools of field quantization and quantum optics based on the principles and rules of quantum mechanics
  • Analyzes similarities and differences between classical and quantum coherence
  • Concentrates on key research topics in quantum optics
  • Explains photon and biphoton physics by examining the devices and experimental procedures used to test theories

This book is basic enough for students, but it also covers a broad range of higher-level concepts that will benefit scientists and other professionals seeking to enhance their understanding of practical and theoretical aspects and new experimental methods of measurement. This material summarizes exciting developments and observations and then helps readers of all levels apply presented concepts and tools to summarize, analyze, and resolve quantum optical problems in their own work. It is a great aid to improve methods of discovering new physics and better understand and apply nontraditional concepts and interpretations in both new and historical experimental discoveries.

Table of Contents

Electromagnetic Wave Theory and Measurement of Light

Electromagnetic Wave Theory of Light

Classical Superposition

Measurement of Light

Intensity of Light: Expectation and Fluctuation

Measurement of Intensity: Ensemble Average and Time Average

Coherence Property of Light—The State of the Radiation

Coherence Property of Light

Temporal Coherence

Spatial Coherence

Diffraction and Propagation

Diffraction

Field Propagation

Optical Imaging

A Classic Imaging System

Fourier Transform via a Lens

First-Order Coherence of Light

First-Order Temporal Coherence

First-Order Spatial Coherence

Second-Order Coherence of Light

Second-Order Coherence of Coherent Light

Second-Order Correlation of Chaotic-Thermal Radiation and the HBT Interferometer

The Physical Cause of the HBT Phenomenon

Near-Field Second-Order Spatial Coherence of Thermal Light

Nth-Order Coherence of Light

Nth-Order Near-Field Spatial Coherence of Thermal Light

Homodyne Detection and Heterodyne Detection of Light

Optical Homodyne and Heterodyne Detection

Balanced Homodyne and Heterodyne Detection

Balanced Homodyne Detection of Independent and Coupled Thermal Fields

Quantum Theory of Light: Field Quantization and Measurement

The Experimental Foundation—Part I: Blackbody Radiation

The Experimental Foundation—Part II: Photoelectric Effect

The Light Quantum and the Field Quantization

Photon Number State of Radiation Field

Coherent State of Radiation Field

Density Operator and Density Matrix

Composite System and Two-Photon State of Radiation Field

A Simple Model of Incoherent and Coherent Radiation Source

Pure State and Mixed State

Product State, Entangled State, and Mixed State of Photon Pairs

Time-Dependent Perturbation Theory

Measurement of Light: Photon Counting

Measurement of Light: Joint Detection of Photons

Field Propagation in Space-Time

Quantum Theory of Optical Coherence

Quantum Degree of First-Order Coherence

Photon and Effective Wavefunction

Measurement of the First-Order Coherence or Correlation

Quantum Degree of Second-Order Coherence

Two-Photon Interference vs. Statistical Correlation of Intensity Fluctuations

Second-Order Spatial Correlation of Thermal Light

Photon Counting and Measurement of G(2)

Quantum Entanglement

EPR Experiment and EPR State

Product State, Entangled State, and Classically Correlated State

Entangled States in Spin Variables

Entangled Biphoton State

EPR Correlation of Entangled Biphoton System

Subsystem in an Entangled Two-Photon State

Biphoton in Dispersive Media

Quantum Imaging

Biphoton Imaging

Ghost Imaging

Ghost Imaging and Uncertainty Relation

Thermal Light Ghost Imaging

Classical Simulation of Ghost Imaging

Turbulence-Free Ghost Imaging

Two-Photon Interferometry−I: Biphoton Interference

Is Two-Photon Interference the Interference of Two Photons?

Two-Photon Interference with Orthogonal Polarization

Franson Interferometer

Two-Photon Ghost Interference

Delayed Choice Quantum Eraser

Two-Photon Interferometry−II: Quantum Interference of Chaotic Light

Two-Photon Young’s Interference

Two-Photon Anticorrelation with Incoherent Chaotic Light

Two-Photon Interference with Incoherent Orthogonal Polarized Chaotic Light

Bell’s Theorem and Bell’s Inequality Measurement

Hidden Variable Theory and Quantum Calculation for the Measurement of Spin 1/2 Bohm State

Bell’s Theorem and Bell’s Inequality

Bell States

Bell State Preparation