Maintenance and Safety of Aging Infrastructure

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Features

  • Presents the state-of-the-art developments in Maintenance and Safety of Aging Infrastructure, a very important and challenging multidisciplinary engineering field
  • Defines efficient methodologies that will enable engineers to find the optimal lifetime maintenance strategy for an aging infrastructure and to minimize its life-cycle cost
  • Emphasises not only theoretical advances but applications as well, making it very important both for academics and practising engineers
  • Selected invited contributions are written by renowned experts from all over the world

Summary

This book presents the latest research findings in the field of maintenance and safety of aging infrastructure. The invited contributions provide an overview of the use of advanced computational and/or experimental techniques in damage and vulnerability assessment as well as maintenance and retrofitting of aging structures and infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, lifelines and ships. Cost-efficient maintenance and management of civil infrastructure requires balanced consideration of both structural performance and the total cost accrued over the entire life-cycle considering uncertainties.

In this context, major topics treated in this book include aging structures, climate adaptation, climate change, corrosion, cost, damage assessment, decision making, extreme events, fatigue life, hazards, hazard mitigation, inspection, life-cycle performance, maintenance, management, NDT methods, optimization, redundancy, reliability, repair, retrofit, risk, robustness, resilience, safety, stochastic control, structural health monitoring, sustainability, uncertainties and vulnerability. Applications include bridges, buildings, dams, marine structures, pavements, power distribution poles, offshore platforms, stadiums and transportation networks.

This up-to-date overview of the field of maintenance and safety of aging infrastructure makes this book a must-have reference work for those involved with structures and infrastructures, including students, researchers and practitioners.

Table of Contents

Editorial
About the Book Series Editor
Preface
About the Editors
Contributors List
Author Data

1 Reliability-based Durability Design and Service Life Assessment of Concrete Structures in a Marine Environment
Mitsuyoshi Akiyama, Dan M. Frangopol and Hiroshi Matsuzaki
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Durability Design Criterion of RC Structures in a Marine Environment
1.2.1 Reliability Prediction
1.2.2 Durability Design Criterion based on Reliability
1.3 Life-cycle Reliability Estimation of Deteriorated Existing RC Structures
1.3.1 Effect of Spatial Distribution of Rebar Corrosion on Flexural Capacity of RC Beams
1.3.2 Updating the Reliability of Existing RC Structures by Incorporating Spatial Variability
1.4 Conclusions
1.5 References

2 Designing Bridges for Inspectability and Maintainability
Sreenivas Alampalli
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Bridge Inspection
2.3 Bridge Maintenance
2.4 Role of Planning and Design
2.5 Designing for Inspectability and Maintainability
2.5.1 Bridge Type Selection
2.5.1.1 Redundancy
2.5.1.2 Jointless Bridges
2.5.1.3 Weathering Steel
2.5.1.4 Skew
2.5.1.5 Material Type
2.5.2 Bridge Details
2.5.2.1 Bearings and Jacking Details
2.5.2.2 Deck Drainage and Scuppers
2.5.2.3 Joints
2.5.2.4 Steel Details
2.5.3 Access
2.5.3.1 Abutments and Piers
2.5.3.2 Trusses and Arches
2.5.3.3 Girder Bridges
2.5.3.4 Bridge Railing and Fencing
2.6 Complex, Unique and Signature Bridges
2.6.1 Specialized Procedures Requirement for Complex and Unique Bridges
2.6.2 Movable Bridges
2.6.3 Signature Bridges
2.6.4 Bridge Security
2.7 Conclusions
2.8 References

3 Structural Vulnerability Measures for Assessment of Deteriorating Bridges in Seismic Prone Areas
Alice Alipour and Behrouz Shafei
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Numerical Modeling of Chloride Intrusion
3.2.1 Evaporable Water Content
3.2.2 Chloride Binding Capacity
3.2.3 Reference Chloride Diffusion Coefficient
3.3 Chloride Diffusion Coefficient
3.3.1 Ambient Temperature
3.3.2 Relative Humidity
3.3.3 Age of Concrete
3.3.4 Free Chloride Content
3.4 Estimation of Corrosion Initiation Time
3.5 Extent of Structural Degradation
3.6 Reinforced Concrete Bridge Models
3.6.1 Material Properties
3.6.2 Superstructure
3.6.3 Columns
3.6.4 Abutments
3.6.5 Foundation
3.7 Structural Capacity Evaluation of Deteriorating Bridges
3.8 Seismic Performance of Deteriorating Bridges
3.8.1 Probabilistic Life-Time Fragility Analysis
3.8.2 Seismic Vulnerability Index for Deteriorating Bridges
3.9 Conclusions
3.10 References

4 Design Knowledge Gain by Structural Health Monitoring
Stefania Arangio and Franco Bontempi
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Knowledge and Design
4.3 System Engineering Approach & Performance-based Design
4.4 Structural Dependability
4.5 Structural Health Monitoring
4.5.1 Structural Identification
4.5.2 Neural Network-Based Data Processing
4.6 Knowledge Gain by Structural Health Monitoring: A Case Study
4.6.1 Description of the Considered Bridge and Its Monitoring System
4.6.2 Application of the Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition
4.6.3 Application of a Neural Networks-Based Approach
4.7 Conclusions
4.8 References

5 Emerging Concepts and Approaches for Efficient and Realistic Uncertainty Quantification
Michael Beer, Ioannis A. Kougioumtzoglou and Edoardo Patelli
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Advanced Stochastic Modelling and Analysis Techniques
5.2.1 General Remarks
5.2.2 Versatile Signal Processing Techniques for Spectral Estimation in Civil Engineering
5.2.2.1 Spectral Analysis: The Fourier Transform
5.2.2.2 Non-Stationary Spectral Analysis
5.2.3 Spectral Analysis Subject to Limited and/or Missing Data
5.2.3.1 Fourier Transform with Zeros
5.2.3.2 Clean Deconvolution
5.2.3.3 Autoregressive Estimation
5.2.3.4 Least Squares Spectral Analysis
5.2.3.5 Artificial Neural Networks: A Potential Future Research Path
5.2.4 Path Integral Techniques for Efficient Response Determination and Reliability Assessment of Civil Engineering Structures and Infrastructure
5.2.4.1 Numerical Path Integral Techniques: Discrete Chapman-Kolmogorov Equation Formulation
5.2.4.2 Approximate/Analytical Wiener Path Integral Techniques
5.3 Generalised Uncertainty Models
5.3.1 Problem Description
5.3.2 Classification of Uncertainties
5.3.3 Imprecise Probability
5.3.4 Engineering Applications of Imprecise Probability
5.3.5 Fuzzy Probabilities
5.3.6 Engineering Applications of Fuzzy Probability
5.4 Monte Carlo Techniques
5.4.1 General Remarks
5.4.2 History of Monte Carlo and Random Number Generators
5.4.2.1 Random Number Generator
5.4.3 Realizations of Random Variables and Stochastic Processes
5.4.4 Evaluation of Integrals
5.4.5 Advanced Methods and Future Trends
5.4.5.1 Sequential Monte Carlo
5.4.6 High Performance Computing
5.4.7 Approaches to Lifetime Predictions
5.4.7.1 Monte Carlo Simulation of Crack Initiation
5.4.7.2 Monte Carlo Simulation of Crack Propagation
5.4.7.3 Monte Carlo Simulation of Other Degradation Processes
5.4.7.4 Lifetime Prediction and Maintenance Schedules
5.5 Conclusions
5.6 References

6 Time-Variant Robustness of Aging Structures
Fabio Biondini and Dan M. Frangopol
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Damage Modeling
6.2.1 Deterioration Patterns
6.2.2 Deterioration Rate
6.2.3 Local and Global Measures of Damage
6.3 Structural Performance Indicators
6.3.1 Parameters of Structural Behavior
6.3.2 Pseudo-Loads
6.3.3 Failure Loads and Failure Times
6.4 Measure of Structural Robustness
6.5 Role of Performance Indicators and Structural Integrity
6.5.1 A Comparative Study
6.5.2 Structural Integrity Index
6.6 Damage Propagation
6.6.1 Propagation Mechanisms
6.6.2 Fault-Tree Analysis
6.7 Structural Robustness and Progressive Collapse
6.8 Structural Robustness and Static Indeterminacy
6.9 Structural Robustness, Structural Redundancy and Failure Times
6.9.1 Case Study
6.9.2 Corrosion Damage and Failure Loads
6.9.3 Robustness and Redundancy
6.9.4 Failure Times
6.10 Role of Uncertainty and Probabilistic Analysis
6.11 Conclusions
6.12 References

7 Extending Fatigue Life of Bridges Beyond 100 Years by using Monitored Data
Eugen Brühwiler
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Proposed Approach
7.2.1 Introduction
7.2.2 Structural Safety Verification Format
7.2.3 Determination of Updated Action Effect
7.2.4 Safety Requirements
7.3 Case Study of a Riveted Railway Bridge
7.3.1 Description of the Bridge
7.3.2 Model for Structural Analysis
7.3.3 Monitoring
7.3.4 Fatigue Safety Verification
7.3.4.1 Step 1: Fatigue Safety Verification with Respect to the Fatigue Limit
7.3.4.2 Step 2: Fatigue Damage Accumulation Calculation and Fatigue Safety Verification
7.3.5 Discussion of the Results
7.4 Case Study of a Highway Bridge Deck in Posttensioned Concrete
7.4.1 Motivation
7.4.2 Monitoring System
7.4.3 Investigation of Extreme Action Effects
7.4.4 Investigation of Fatigue Action Effects
7.4.5 Discussion of the Results
7.5 Conclusions
7.6 References

8 Management and Safety of Existing Concrete Structures via Optical Fiber Distributed Sensing
Joan R. Casas, Sergi Villalba and Vicens Villalba
8.1 Introduction
8.2 OBR Technology: Description and Background
8.3 Application to Concrete Structures
8.3.1 Laboratory Test in a Reinforced Concrete Slab
8.3.1.1 OBR Sensors Application
8.3.2 Prestressed Concrete Bridge
8.3.2.1 Reading Strains under 400kN Truck
8.3.2.2 Reading Strains under Normal Traffic and 400kN Static Load
8.3.3 Concrete Cooling Tower
8.3.3.1 OBR sensors application
8.4 Results and Discussion
8.5 Conclusions
8.6 References

9 Experimental Dynamic Assessment of Civil Infrastructure
Álvaro Cunha, Elsa Caetano, Filipe Magalhães and Carlos Moutinho
9.1 Dynamic Testing and Continuous Monitoring of Civil Structures
9.2 Excitation and Vibration Measurement Devices
9.3 Modal Identification
9.3.1 Overview of EMA and OMA Methods
9.3.2 Pre-processing
9.3.3 Frequency Domain Decomposition
9.3.4 Stochastic Subspace Identification
9.3.5 Poly-reference Least Squares Frequency Domain
9.4 Mitigation of Environmental Effects on Modal Estimates and Vibration Based Damage Detection
9.5 Examples of Dynamic Testing and Continuous Dynamic Monitoring
9.5.1 Dynamic Testing
9.5.2 Continuous Dynamic Monitoring
9.5.2.1 Continuous Monitoring of Pedro e Inês Lively Footbridge
9.5.2.2 Continuous Monitoring of Infante D. Henrique Bridge
9.5.2.3 Continuous Monitoring of Braga Stadium Suspension Roof
9.6 Conclusions
9.7 References

10 Two Approaches for the Risk Assessment of Aging Infrastructure with Applications
David De Leon Escobedo, David Joaquín Delgado-Hernandez and Juan Carlos Arteaga-Arcos
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Use of the Expected Life-Cycle Cost to Derive Inspection Times and Optimal Safety Levels
10.2.1 Highway Concrete Bridge in Mexico
10.2.2 Oil Offshore Platform in Mexico
10.2.2.1 Assessment of Structural Damage
10.2.2.2 Initial, Damage and Life-Cycle Cost
10.2.2.3 Optimal Design of an Offshore Platform
10.2.2.4 Effects of Epistemic Uncertainties
10.2.2.5 Minimum Life-Cycle Cost Designs
10.3 Using Bayesian Networks to Assess the Economical Effectiveness of Maintenance Alternatives
10.3.1 Bayesian Networks
10.3.2 BN for the Risk Assessment of Earth Dams in Central Mexico
10.4 Conclusions and Recommendations
10.5 References

11 Risk-based Maintenance of Aging Ship Structures
Yordan Garbatov and Carlos Guedes Soares
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Corrosion Deterioration Modelling
11.3 Nonlinear Corrosion Wastage Model Structures
11.3.1 Corrosion Wastage Model Accounting for Repair
11.3.2 Corrosion Wastage Model Accounting for the Environment
11.3.3 Corrosion Degradation Surface Modelling
11.4 Risk-based Maintenance Planning
11.4.1 Analysing Failure Data
11.4.2 Optimal Replacement – Minimization of Cost
11.4.3 Optimal Replacement – Minimization of Downtime
11.4.4 Optimal Inspection to Maximize the Availability
11.4.5 Comparative Analysis of Corroded Deck Plates
11.4.6 Risk-based Maintenance of Tankers and Bulk Carriers
11.5 Conclusions
11.6 References

12 Investigating Pavement Structure Deterioration with a Relative Evaluation Model
Kiyoyuki Kaito, Kiyoshi Kobayashi and Kengo Obama
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Framework of the Study
12.2.1 Deterioration Characteristics of the Pavement Structure
12.2.2 Benchmarking and Relative Evaluation
12.3 Mixed Markov Deterioration Hazard Model
12.3.1 Preconditions for Model Development
12.3.2 Mixed Markov Deterioration Hazard Model
12.3.3 Estimation of a Mixed Markov Deterioration Hazard Model
12.3.4 Estimation of the Heterogeneity Parameter
12.4 Benchmarking and Evaluation Indicator
12.4.1 Benchmarking Evaluation
12.4.2 Road Surface State Inspection and Benchmarking
12.4.3 Relative Evaluation and the Extraction of Intensive Monitoring Sections
12.4.4 FWD Survey and the Diagnosis of the Deterioration of a Pavement Structure
12.5 Application Study
12.5.1 Outline
12.5.2 Estimation Results
12.5.3 Relative Evaluation of Deterioration Rate
12.5.4 FWD Survey for Structural Diagnosis
12.5.5 Relation between the Heterogeneity Parameter and the Results of the FWD Survey
12.5.6 Perspectives for Future Studies
12.6 Conclusions
12.7 References

13 Constructs for Quantifying the Long-term Effectiveness of Civil Infrastructure Interventions
Steven Lavrenz, Jackeline Murillo Hoyos and Samuel Labi
13.1 Introduction
13.2 The Constructs for Measuring Interventions Effectiveness
13.2.1 Life of the Intervention
13.2.1.1 Age-based Approach
13.2.1.2 Condition-based Approach
13.2.1.3 The Issue of Censoring and Truncation on the Age- and Condition-based Approaches
13.2.2 Extension in the Life of the Infrastructure due to the Intervention
13.2.3 Increase in Average Performance of the Infrastructure over the Intervention Life
13.2.4 Increased Area Bounded by Infrastructure Performance Curve due to the Intervention
13.2.5 Reduction in the Cost of Maintenance or Operations Subsequent to the Intervention
13.2.6 Decrease in the Likelihood that a Specific Distress will Start to Occur within a Specified Time Period After the Intervention; or, the Increase in Time Taken for Distress to Initiate
13.3 Conclusions
13.4 References

14 Risk Assessment and Wind Hazard Mitigation of Power Distribution Poles
Yue Li, Mark G. Stewart and Sigridur Bjarnadottir
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Design of Distribution Poles
14.3 Design (Nominal) Load (Sn)
14.4 Design (Nominal) Resistance (Rn) and Degradation of Timber Poles
14.5 Hurricane Risk Assessment of Timber Poles
14.6 Hurricane Mitigation Strategies and Their Cost-effectiveness
14.6.1 Mitigation Strategies
14.6.2 Cost of Replacement (Crep) and Annual Replacement Rate (δ)
14.6.3 Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCC) for Cost-effectiveness Evaluation
14.7 Illustrative Example
14.7.1 Design
14.7.2 Risk Assessment
14.7.2.1 Hurricane Fragility
14.7.2.2 Updated Annual pf Considering Effects of Degradation and Climate Change
14.7.3 Cost-effectiveness of Mitigation Strategies
14.8 Conclusions
14.9 References

15 A Comparison between MDP-based Optimization Approaches for Pavement Management Systems
Aditya Medury and Samer Madanat
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Methodology
15.2.1 Top-Down Approach
15.2.2 Bottom-Up Approaches
15.2.2.1 Two Stage Bottom-Up Approach
15.2.2.2 Modified Two Stage Bottom-Up Approach: Incorporating Lagrangian Relaxation Methods
15.2.3 Obtaining Facility-Specific Policies using Top-Down Approach: A Simultaneous Network Optimization Approach
15.3 Parametric Study
15.3.1 Results
15.3.2 Implementation Issues
15.4 Conclusions and Future Work
15.5 References

16 Corrosion and Safety of Structures in Marine Environments
Robert E. Melchers
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Structural Reliability Theory
16.3 Progression of Corrosion with Time
16.4 Plates, Ships, Pipelines and Sheet Piling
16.5 Mooring Chains
16.6 Extreme Value representation of Maximum Pit Depth Uncertainty
16.7 Effect of Applying the Frechet Extreme Value Distribution
16.8 Discussion of the Results
16.9 Conclusions
16.10 References

17 Retrofitting and Refurbishment of Existing Road Bridges
Claudio Modena, Giovanni Tecchio, Carlo Pellegrino, Francesca da Porto, Mariano Angelo Zanini and Marco Donà
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Retrofitting and Refurbishment of Common RC Bridge Typologies
17.2.1 Degradation Processes
17.2.1.1 Concrete Deterioration due to Water Penetration
17.2.1.2 Cracking and Spalling of Concrete Cover due to Carbonation and Bar Oxidation
17.2.2 Original Design and Construction Defects
17.2.3 Rehabilitation and Retrofit of Existing RC Bridges
17.2.3.1 Rehabilitation and Treatment of the Deteriorated Surfaces
17.2.3.2 Static Retrofit
17.2.3.3 Seismic Retrofit
17.2.3.4 Functional Refurbishment
17.3 Assessment and Retrofitting of Common Steel Bridge Typologies
17.3.1 Original Design Defects – Fatigue Effects
17.3.2 Degradation Processes
17.3.3 Rehabilitation and Retrofit of the Existing Steel Decks
17.3.3.1 Repair Techniques for Corroded Steel Members
17.3.3.2 Rehabilitation and Strengthening Techniques for Fatigue-induced Cracks
17.4 Assessment and Retrofitting of Common Masonry Bridge Typologies
17.4.1 Degradation Processes and Original Design Defects
17.4.2 Rehabilitation and Retrofit of Existing Masonry Arch Bridges
17.4.2.1 Barrel Vault
17.4.2.2 Spandrel Walls, Piers, Abutments and Foundations
17.5 Conclusions
17.6 References

18 Stochastic Control Approaches for Structural Maintenance
Konstantinos G. Papakonstantinou and Masanobu Shinozuka
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Discrete Stochastic Optimal Control with Full Observability
18.2.1 State Augmentation
18.3 Stochastic Optimal Control with Partial Observability
18.3.1 Bellman Backups
18.4 Value Function Approximation Methods
18.4.1 Approximations based on MDP and Q-functions
18.4.2 Grid-based Approximations
18.4.3 Point-based Solvers
18.4.3.1 Perseus Algorithm
18.5 Optimum Inspection and Maintenance Policies with POMDPs
18.5.1 POMDP Modeling
18.5.1.1 States and Maintenance Actions
18.5.1.2 Observations and Inspection Actions
18.5.1.3 Rewards
18.5.1.4 Joint Actions and Summary
18.6 Results
18.6.1 Infinite Horizon Results
18.6.2 Finite Horizon Results
18.7 Conclusions
18.8 References

19 Modeling Inspection Uncertainties for On-site Condition Assessment using NDT Tools
Franck Schoefs
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Uncertainty Identification and Modeling during Inspection
19.2.1 Sources of Uncertainties: From the Tool to the Decision
19.2.1.1 Aleatory Uncertainties
19.2.1.2 Epistemic Uncertainties
19.2.2 Epistemic and Aleatory Uncertainty Modelling
19.2.2.1 Probabilistic Modeling of PoD and PFA from Signal Theory
19.2.2.2 Probabilistic Assessment of PoD and PFA from Statistics (Calibration)
19.2.2.3 The ROC Curve as Decision Aid-Tool and Method for Detection Threshold Selection: The α–δ Method
19.2.2.4 Case of Multiple Inspections
19.2.2.5 Spatial and Time Dependence of ROC Curves and Detection Threshold for Degradation Processes
19.3 Recent Concepts for Decision
19.3.1 Bayesian Modeling for Introducing New Quantities
19.3.2 Discussion on the Assessment of PCE
19.3.3 Definition of the Cost Function for a Risk Assessment
19.3.3.1 Modelling and Illustration
19.3.3.2 Use of the α–δ Method
19.3.4 Definition of a Two Stage Inspection Model
19.4 Recent Developpements about Spatial Fields Assesment and Data Fusion
19.5 Summary
19.6 References

20 The Meaning of Condition Description and Inspection Data Quality in Engineering Structure Management
Marja-Kaarina Söderqvist
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Engineering Structures
20.3 The Inspection System
20.3.1 General Description
20.3.2 Goals of Inspection
20.3.3 Inspection Types and Intervals
20.3.4 Handbooks and Guidelines
20.3.5 Inspection Data
20.3.6 Use of Inspection Results
20.4 Condition Indicators
20.4.1 General
20.4.2 Data Estimated in Inspections
20.4.3 Data Processed by the Owner
20.5 The Management of Bridge Inspection Data Quality
20.5.1 General Rules
20.5.2 Tools for Data Quality Control
20.5.3 Training of Inspectors
20.5.4 Quality Measurement Process: A Case Application
20.5.4.1 Bridge Inspector Qualifications
20.5.4.2 Day for Advanced Training
20.5.4.3 Quality Measurements
20.5.4.4 Quality Reports of the Bridge Register
20.5.4.5 Follow up of Quality Improvement Methods
20.6 Prediction of Structure Condition
20.6.1 Age Behaviour Modelling
20.6.2 The Finnish Reference Bridges
20.6.2.1 Model Simulation
20.7 Maintenance, Repair and Rehabilitation Policy
20.7.1 Goals and Targets
20.7.2 Central Policy Definitions in the Management Process
20.7.3 Maintenance and Repair Planning
20.8 Conclusions
20.9 References

21 Climate Adaptation Engineering and Risk-based Design and Management of Infrastructure
Mark G. Stewart, Dimitri V. Val, Emilio Bastidas-Arteaga, Alan O’Connor and Xiaoming Wang
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Modelling Weather and Climate-related Hazards in Conditions of Climate Change
21.2.1 Climate Modelling
21.2.2 Modelling Extreme Events under Non-Stationary Conditions
21.2.2.1 Generalised Extreme Value Distribution for Block Maxima
21.2.2.2 Generalised Pareto Distribution for Threshold Exceedance
21.2.2.3 Point Process Characterisation of Extremes
21.3 Impacts of Climate Change
21.3.1 Corrosion and Material Degradation
21.3.2 Frequency and Intensity of Climate Hazards
21.3.3 Sustainability and Embodied Energy Requirements for Maintenance Strategies
21.4 Risk-Based Decision Support
21.4.1 Definition of Risk
21.4.2 Cost-Effectiveness of Adaptation Strategies
21.5 Case Studies of Optimal Design and Management of Infrastructure
21.5.1 Resilience of Interdependent Infrastructure Systems to Floods
21.5.2 Strengthening Housing in Queensland Against Extreme Wind
21.5.3 Climate Change and Cost-Effectiveness of Adaptation Strategies in RC Structures Subjected to Chloride Ingress
21.5.4 Designing On- and Offshore Wind Energy Installations to Allow for Predicted Evolutions in Wind and Wave Loading
21.5.5 Impact and Adaptation to Coastal Inundation
21.6 Research Challenges
21.7 Conclusions
21.8 References

22 Comparing Bridge Condition Evaluations with Life-Cycle Expenditures
Bojidar Yanev
22.1 Introduction: Networks and Projects
22.2 Network and Project Level Condition Assessments
22.2.1 Potential Hazards (NYS DOT)
22.2.2 Load Rating (AASHTO, 2010)
22.2.3 Vulnerability (NYS DOT)
22.2.4 Serviceability and Sufficiency (NBI)
22.2.5 Diagnostics
22.3 Bridge-Related Actions
22.3.1 Maintenance
22.3.2 Preservation
22.3.3 Repair and Rehabilitation
22.4 The New York City Network – Bridge Equilibrium of Supply/Demand
22.5 Network Optimization/Project Prioritization
22.5.1 The Preventive Maintenance Model
22.5.2 The repair model
22.6 Conclusions
22.7 References

23 Redundancy-based Design of Nondeterministic Systems
Benjin Zhu and Dan M. Frangopol
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Redundancy Factor
23.2.1 Definition
23.2.2 Example
23.3 Effects of Parameters on Redundancy Factor
23.4 Redundancy Factors of Systems with Many Components
23.4.1 Using the RELSYS program
23.4.2 Using the MCS-based program
23.5 Limit States for Component Design
23.6 A Highway Bridge Example
23.6.1 Live Load Bending Moments
23.6.2 Dead Load Moments
23.6.3 Mean Resistance of Girders
23.6.4 An Additional Case: βsys,target =4.0
23.7 Conclusions
23.8 References

Author Index
Subject Index
Structures and Infrastructures Series