Organic Compounds in Soils, Sediments & Sludges

Organic Compounds in Soils, Sediments & Sludges: Analysis and Determination

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The increasing awareness of the effects of pollutants in the eco-system and on the development of suitable methods of analysis has stimulated a lot of research recently. This volume comprehensively discusses the range of methods available for the analysis and determination of organic compounds in soils, river and marine sediments and industrial sludges. A review is provided of the instrumentation used in soil and sediment laboratories and an indication of the types of organics that can be determined by each technique. Subsequent chapters discuss the analysis of various types of organics in a logical and systematic manner. Guidance is provided on the applicability of techniques in certain environments, the advantages and disadvantages of using one method over another, likely interference, the sensitivity of particular techniques, and detection limits. The work will be of interest to agricultural chemists, agriculturists concerned with ways in which organic chemicals used in crop or soil treatment permeate the ecosystem and to biologists and scientists involved in fish, plant and insect life. Toxicologists, public health workers, oceanographers, and environmentalists will also find the book beneficial.

Table of Contents


1 Extraction of organic compounds from soil
1.1 Conventional solvent extraction
1.2 Accelerated solvent extraction
1.3 Pressurised liquid extraction
1.4 Microwave-assisted extraction
1.5 Subcritical water extraction
1.6 Solid-phase microextraction
1.7 Supercritical fluid extraction

2 Organic compounds in soils
2.1 Hydrocarbons
2.1.1 Aliphatic hydrocarbons
2.1.2 Aromatic hydrocarbons
2.1.3 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)
2.2 Oxygen containing compounds
2.2.1 Alcohols, ketones and aldehydes
2.2.2 Carboxylic acids
2.2.3 Phenols
2.2.4 Methoxy groups
2.3 Chlorine containing compounds
2.3.1 Chloroaliphatic hydrocarbons
2.3.2 Chloroaromatic hydrocarbons
2.3.3 Chlorophenols
2.3.4 Polychlorobiphenyls
2.4 Nitrogen containing compounds
2.4.1 Aromatic amines
2.4.2 Nitro compounds
2.4.3 N-Oxides
2.4.4 Nitrosamines
2.4.5 Ethylene diamine tetracetric acid
2.4.6 Acrylonitrile
2.4.7 Polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocyclic
2.4.8 Miscellaneous
2.5 Sulphur and phosphorus compounds
2.6 Volatile organic compounds
2.7 Polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans
2.8 Miscellaneous organic compounds
2.8.1 Humic and fulvic acids
2.8.2 Mestranol
2.8.3 Trifluoroacetic acid
2.8.4 Flame retardants
2.8.5 Polystyrene
2.8.6 Further compounds
2.9 Mixtures of organic pollutants in soil
2.9.1 Gas chromatography
2.9.2 Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
2.9.3 Purge and trap gas chromatography

3 Insecticides and herbicides in soils
3.1 Chlorinated insecticides
3.2 Triazine herbicides soil extraction procedures
3.3 Phenoxy acetic acid herbicides
3.4 Carbamate type insecticides
3.5 Substituted urea herbicides
3.6 Imidazolinone herbicide
3.7 Organophosphorus insecticides
3.8 Fungicides
3.9 Miscellaneous insecticides and herbicides
3.10 Multi insecticide/herbicide mixtures

4 Organometallic compounds in soils
4.1 Organoarsenic compounds
4.2 Organolead compounds
4.3 Organotin compounds
4.4 Organomercury compounds

5 Extraction of organic compounds from sediments
5.1 Non-saline sediments
5.2 Saline, marine sediments
5.2.1 Filtration methods
5.2.2 Separation by centrifugation
5.2.3 Fractionation methods Fractionation by chemical leaching Fractionation by sedimentation
5.2.4 Other fractionation methods

6 Organic compounds in non-saline sediments
6.1 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
6.2 Oxygen containing compounds
6.2.1 Phenols
6.2.2 Carboxylic acids
6.2.3 Aldehydes and ketones
6.2.4 Phthalate esters
6.2.5 Cationic detergent
6.3 Halogen containing compounds
6.3.1 Volatile aliphatic chlorohydrocarbons
6.3.2 Non-volatile aliphatic chlorohydrocarbons
6.3.3 Organohalogen concentration techniques
6.3.4 Chlorinated dioxins
6.4 Nitrogen containing compounds
6.5 Sulphur containing compounds
6.6 Phosphorus containing compounds
6.6.1 Alkyl and aryl phosphates
6.6.2 Inositol phosphate
6.6.3 Adenosine-5’-triphosphate
6.6.4 Nucleotides
6.7 Insecticides and pesticides
6.7.1 Organophosphorus insecticides
6.7.2 Organochlorine insecticides
6.7.3 Azine type herbicides
6.7.4 Carbamate type herbicides
6.7.5 Phenoxy acetic acid type herbicides
6.8 Miscellaneous organic compounds
6.8.1 Humic and fulvic acid
6.8.2 Detergents
6.8.3 Optical whiteners
6.8.4 Carbohydrates
6.8.5 Uronic acids and aldoses
6.8.6 Pharmaceuticals
6.8.7 Sterols
6.8.8 Miscellaneous

7 Organometallic compounds in non-saline sediments
7.1 Organoarsenic compounds
7.2 Organolead compounds
7.3 Organotin compounds
7.4 Organomercury compounds
7.5 Organosilicon compounds

8 Organic compounds in saline marine and estuarine sediments
8.1 Marine sediments
8.1.1 Hydrocarbons Aliphatic hydrocarbons Aromatic hydrocarbons Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
8.1.2 Oxygen containing compounds Carbohydrates Surfactants
8.1.3 Halogen containing compounds Chlorophenols Polychlorobiphenyls
8.1.4 Nitrogen containing organic compounds
8.1.5 Sulphur containing organic compounds
8.1.6 Insecticides, pesticides and herbicides Organochlorine insecticides Organophosphorus pesticides
8.1.7 Miscellaneous Priority pollutants Humic and fulvic acids
8.2 Estuary sediments
8.2.1 Chlorobenzenes
8.2.2 Hexachlorophene
8.2.3 Polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated insecticides and polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons
8.2.4 Sterols
8.2.5 Quaternary ammonium compounds
8.3 Lacustrine sediments
8.3.1 Aliphatic hydrocarbons
8.3.2 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
8.3.3 Sterols
8.3.4 Unsubstituted and hydroxy substituted fatty acids

9 Organometallic compounds in saline sediments
9.1 Organoarsenic compounds
9.2 Organolead compounds
9.3 Organotin compounds
9.4 Organomercury compounds

10 Organic compounds in sludges
10.1 Hydrocarbons
10.1.1 Aliphatic hydrocarbons
10.1.2 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
10.2 Oxygen containing compounds
10.2.1 Alcohols
10.2.2 Aldehydes
10.2.3 Carboxylic acids
10.2.4 Phenols
10.2.5 Surface active agents Anionic types Cationic detergents Non-ionic detergents
10.3 Chlorine containing compounds
10.3.1 Chlorinated hydrocarbons
10.3.2 Haloforms
10.3.3 Chlorophenols
10.3.4 Chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid
10.3.5 Polychloroinated biphenyl
10.3.6 Polychloro-p-benzodioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans
10.4 Nitrogen containing compounds
10.4.1 Nitrilo acetic acid
10.4.2 Ethylene diamine tetracetic acid
10.4.3 Nitrosamines
10.4.4 Guanidines
10.4.5 Miscellaneous nitrogen compounds
10.5 Sulphur containing compounds
10.5.1 Alkyl sulphides
10.5.2 Thiosteroids
10.6 Phosphorus compounds
10.7 Insecticides pesticides herbicides
10.7.1 Organochlorine insecticides
10.7.2 Carbamate insecticides and fungicides
10.7.3 Organophosphorus insecticides
10.7.4 Triazine herbicides
10.7.5 Phenoxy acetic and herbicide
10.7.6 Mirex
10.8 Miscellaneous organic compounds
10.8.1 Cobolamin
10.8.2 Nucleic acids
10.8.3 Adenosine phosphate ether
10.8.4 Humic and fulvic acids
10.8.5 Sucralose
10.8.6 Organic carbon
10.8.7 Miscellaneous
10.9 Mixtures of organic compounds
10.9.1 Gas chromatography
10.9.2 Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
10.9.3 High performance liquid chromatography
10.9.4 Ion-exchange chromatography
10.9.5 Gel filtration chromatography
10.9.6 Preconcentration

11 Organometallic compounds in sludges
11.1 Organolead compounds
11.2 Organotin compounds
11.3 Organomercury compounds


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