Geosystems: Design Rules and Applications

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Summary

Geotextile encapsulated sand elements are three-dimensional systems manufactured from textile materials, non-woven materials or combinations of textile and non-woven materials that are filled with sand on-site. These systems are relatively new and the number of applications is growing in river and coastal engineering. Quite often Geosystems are mentioned as a possible solution, but planners, designers and contractors feel rather hesitant about the application of geotextile encapsulated sand elements due to a lack of experience and adequate design rules.

The use of geosystems has the advantage that local material can be applied and that no (expensive) quarry stone needs to be extracted and transported from the mountains to the site. Compared to traditional construction methods (with quarry stone) the application of geotextile sand filled elements may add considerable operational advantages to the execution of marine works and may offer attractive financial opportunities. In the application of geotextile encapsulated sand elements however, proper attention should be paid to the laying down of different responsibilities of the parties in the contract.

In Geosystems. Design Rules and Applications four types of geotextile sand elements are distinguished, each with specific properties: geo-bags, geo-mattresses, geotextile tubes and geotextile containers. The focus is on the use of geosystems filled with sand as a construction in river and coastal engineering. Geosystems filled with sludge are not covered. The chapters “Introduction” and “General design aspects” are followed by four chapters of the same structure dealing with the various systems. Each of these four chapters starts with a general description and applications and ends with a calculation example. Design aspects are dealt with in the remaining paragraphs.

Geosystems. Design Rules and Applications is based on research commissioned by the Dutch Rijkswaterstaat and Delft Cluster. The realisation of the Dutch version was coordinated by a CUR-committee. The English version is a translation of the Dutch version (CUR-publication 217). However, new developments have been added and the text was checked once again and improved. Geosystems. Design Rules and Applications is an essential reference for professionals and academics interested in River and Coastal Engineering, but aims also at those interested in Geotechnical Engineering.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

Why there is a need for design rules for geotextile-encapsulated sand elements
Document structure

2. General design aspects

Basic principles of geotextile-encapsulated sand elements
Design approach
Safety considerations
Introduction
Deterministic method
Potential failure mechanisms
Material aspects of geotextiles
Raw materials
Sand tightness
Permeability
Tensile strength and strain
Seams
Damage during installation of gravel layers
Durability
CE marking

3. Geotextile bags

Application and general experimental data
Installation procedure
Geometric design
Failure modes and safety considerations
Design aspects
Material choice
Required tensile strength
Stability in waves
Stability when subject to longitudinal current flows
Stability when subject to overtopping currents
Stability of geotextile bags placed in mounds
Construction aspects
Calculation example

4. Geotextile mattresses

Application areas and general experimental data
Installation procedure
Geometric design
Potential failure mechanisms and safety considerations
Design aspects
Material choice
Required tensile strength
Stability in waves
Stability in longitudinal currents
Geotechnical stability
Construction aspects
Calculation example

5. Geotextile tubes

Applications and general experimental data
Installation procedure
General
Pump speed and pump capacity
Fill material
Geometric design
Failure mechanisms and safety considerations
Design aspects
Material choice and fabrication
Required tensile strength
Stability
Construction aspects
Calculation example

6. Geotextile containers

Application areas and general experimental data
Installation procedure
General
Fill methodology
Fill material
Degree of filling
Geometric design
Failure mechanisms and safety considerations
Design aspects
Material choice
Loading on geotextile while opening the split barge
Loading on geotextile upon impact on the bottom
Required tensile strength
Stability in waves
Stability in currents over the structure
Stacking stability
Influence of wave-induced liquefaction
Placement accuracy
Construction aspects
Calculation example

Appendix A:Permeability of geotextiles
Appendix B:CE marking
Appendix C:Design charts for the geotechnical stability of geotextile mattresses and geotextile bags on slope revetments
Appendix D:Dimensions and shape of geotextile tubes
Appendix E:Shape and forces in geotextile tubes (Timoshenko method)
Appendix F:Tensile load in geotextile container during the opening of the split barge
Appendix G:Fall velocity of the geotextile container
Appendix H:Placement accuracy for geotextile containers