Sustainable Energy Policies for Europe

Sustainable Energy Policies for Europe: Towards 100% Renewable Energy

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Features

      • Overview and evaluation of the European climate and energy framework and related policy debates
      • European policy decisions in the global context
      • Description and analysis of energy-scenarios for Europe (2020, 2030, 2050) with specific focus on renewable energy deployment
      • Analysis and assessment of policy options for renewable energy in Europe in the context of the existing climate and energy package and the debate about post-2020-climate and energy targets as part of an integrated framework

Summary

The discussion about energy perspectives beyond 2020, up to 2030 and eventually 2050 has started. There seems to be a verbal consensus on the necessity of ambitious climate change mitigation policies, without a convincing perspective of the necessary policy decisions to be reached in due time. Methods to achieve greenhouse gas reduction as well as energy security vary from aiming for 100% renewable energies and setting up appropriate policy frameworks to implementing a mix of renewables comprising so-called clean fossil and nuclear energy. This book provides an analysis of the different approaches and the reasons why there is no sustainable alternative to aiming for 100% renewables – and how this vision could come true. The book provides an overview and in-depth analysis of a vital debate. It describes how the present policy framework with 2020-targets for the share of renewables, for increase of energy efficiency and for greenhouse gas emissions reduction was developed and how it has been implemented so far. Furthermore, it describes and analyses the emerging debate about the future of our energy system and the necessary next steps and targets leading up to 2030.

Table of Contents

About the book series
Editorial board
Foreword by Günther Oettinger
Foreword by Fiona Hall
Author’s preface
About the author
About the contributors
Acknowledgements
Conventions

The importance of sustainable energy policies for Europe – an introduction
Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes
1 Climate change: The challenge to be met
2 Climate negotiations: Stagnation for years
3 Renewable energy: The solution at hand
4 European Union: Frontrunners on their way
5 Scenarios and visions: Towards a post-2020 framework
6 Facilitating the paradigm shift towards renewable energy


Section I The European climate and energy policy framework

1. Introducing a groundbreaking legislative framework
Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes
1.1 How today’s policy framework was developed
1.2 How the framework was refined and implemented
1.3 Which questions are to be addressed and answered

2. From cradle to adult life: European climate and energy policies until 2007
Christine Lins
2.1 The beginnings of community support for renewable energy
2.2 The first community support programmes
2.3 The promotion of renewable energy as central pillar in the fight against climate change
2.4 The break-through: The 1997 white paper being the first legislative element on renewable energy in the EU
2.5 The campaign for take-off
2.6 Legislation for renewable energy use in the electricity and transport sector as well as for buildings
2.6.1 The RES-electricity Directive
2.6.2 Legislation on biofuels
2.6.3 Directive on the promotion of energy performance of buildings
2.7 Renewables heating & cooling: The missing link

3. The European climate and energy package for 2020
Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes
3.1 Introduction
3.2 The council agreement of March 2007
3.3 Implementing the council agreement
3.4 The Emissions Trading Directive
3.5 Effort sharing decision
3.6 CCS Directive
3.7 Renewable Energies Directive
3.7.1 Binding overall targets and indicative trajectories
3.7.2 National support schemes and cooperation mechanisms
3.7.3 National Renewable Energy Actions Plans (NREAPs)
3.7.4 Guarantees of Origin (GOs)
3.7.5 Removing barriers
3.7.6 The heating and cooling sector
3.7.7 Renewable energy in the transport sector
3.7.8 Sustainable biofuels and other biomass
3.7.9 Review in 2014
3.8 The importance of the climate and energy package

4. From agreement via legislation to implementation – will the climate and energy package deliver until 2020?
Jan Geiss
4.1 Introduction
4.2 The climate and energy package
4.3 Status and prospects: Renewable energy sources
4.3.1 Legislative background: The RES-Directive
4.3.2 Status: The National Renewable Energy Action Plans – NREAPs
4.3.3 Policy recommendations
4.3.4 Status: Implementation of the RES-Directive
4.3.5 Conclusions: Prospects for renewable energy
4.4 Status and prospects: Energy efficiency
4.4.1 Legislative background – energy efficiency policies
4.4.2 Status of the efficiency policies – gaps and remaining policy requirements
4.4.3 The new Energy Efficiency Directive
4.4.3.1 Key elements of the Energy Efficiency Directive
4.4.3.2 Remaining gaps
4.4.4 Conclusions: Prospects of energy efficiency
4.5 Status and prospects: Greenhouse gas reduction
4.5.1 The logic and functioning of the EU emissions trading system
4.5.1.1 Phase 1: 2005–2007 – “Testing phase”
4.5.1.2 Phase 2: 2008–2012 – “Serious business phase”
4.5.1.3 Phase 3: 2013–2020 – “Improve-to-deliver phase?”
4.5.2 Conclusions: Prospects of greenhouse gas reductions
4.6 Conclusions

5. Legal assessment of “discriminating market barriers” in national support systems
Markus Kahles & Thorsten Müller
5.1 Introduction 63
5.2 Basic conflict: free movement of goods versus national support schemes
5.3 Legalisation of discriminating support schemes by the RES-Directive
5.4 Article 34 of TFEU as a test criterion for national support schemes?
5.4.1 Compatibility of the second subparagraph of Article 3(3) of the RES-Directive with the primary law
5.4.2 Suspensory effect of the second subparagraph of Article 3(3) of the RES-Directive
5.5 Summary and prognosis

6. Powerful national support systems versus Europe-wide harmonisation – assessment of competing and converging support instruments
Markus Kahles & Thorsten Müller
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Overview of the support schemes in the Member States
6.2.1 Feed-in tariffs
6.2.2 Feed-in premium
6.2.3 Quota obligations
6.2.4 Differences and similarities
6.3 Harmonisation of the support scheme as an alternative?
6.4 The competition among support schemes in the Union
6.4.1 Advantages and disadvantages of competition among systems
6.4.2 Avoiding disadvantages by means of binding targets
6.4.3 Establishment of an institutional framework for information exchange
6.5 Process of convergence of the support schemes?
6.5.1 Statistical transfer
6.5.2 Joint projects
6.5.2.1 Joint projects between Member States
6.5.2.2 Joint projects with third countries
6.5.3 Joint support schemes
6.6 Summary

7. Internal energy market – Implementation still pending
Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes
7.1 Introduction: Environment, energy, free movement of goods
7.2 The first internal energy market package
7.3 The second internal energy market package
7.3.1 Trying to overcome the weaknesses of the first package
7.3.2 Consumer protection
7.3.3 Transmission System Operators (TSOs)
7.3.4 Market opening
7.4 Moving to the next package
7.5 The third internal energy market package
7.5.1 Electricity and gas market directives overhauled
7.5.2 Establishing ACER
7.6 Still to be achieved: Completing the internal market
7.6.1 Some progress until 2012
7.6.2 Chicken or egg: renewable energies in the internal market
7.6.3 Outlook


Section II The way forward: 2020 and beyond

8. Scenario development and policy debates
Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes

9. Scenarios up to 2050 – assumptions, figures and more
Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes
9.1 Introduction: Scenario overview
9.2 Scenarios for 2020: Preparing and assessing the 2020-target
9.3 2030: Evaluating and questioning the 2020 framework
9.3.1 Forging proof for harmonisation gains
9.3.2 Harmonisation gains in question
9.4 2050: Low-carbon versus renewables development
9.5 2050: Reaching 80% greenhouse gas reduction and more
9.6 The industry’s perspective: 100% renewable energy in 2050
9.7 2050: Outlining the Energy [R]evolution
9.8 EU Commission roadmaps 2050: Very high shares of renewable energy
9.8.1 Low Carbon Roadmap 2050
9.8.2 Transport Roadmap 2050
9.8.3 Energy Roadmap 2050
9.9 After the roadmaps: Striving for 100% renewables in 2050

10. Learning from best practice – what European legislation and policy development can contribute to global growth of renewables
Christine Lins
10.1 Global renewable energy development, where do we currently stand?
10.2 Stable policy frameworks: The enabling factor of renewable energy deployment
10.3 Money flows where policy stability is provided
10.4 Global target setting
10.5 Future outlook

11. Towards an integrated post-2020 framework
Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes
11.1 Looking towards 2030
11.2 Renewables – a major player in the energy market
11.3 Renewables and State Aid regulations
11.4 The future of biofuels and biomass – in transport and beyond
11.5 Emissions trading: Trying to repair a key system
11.6 Another round of wishful thinking
11.7 European parliament calling for a stable 2030-framework
11.8 Towards a 2030-framework for climate and energy policies
11.8.1 Green Paper: A 2030 framework for climate and energy policies
11.8.2 EREC’s Hat-trick 2030

Outlook – towards 100% renewable energy
Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes
1 Paving the road towards a truly sustainable energy system in Europe – developing a 2030 framework
2 An integrated 2030-framework for renewables, efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction
3 The future of support schemes
4 Policy decisions to be taken
5 From integration of renewables to system transformation for renewables

References
Subject index

Author Bio(s)

Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes (*1954, Germany) is currently the President of the European Renewable Energy Council (EREC), the Brussels based umbrella organisation of the European renewable energy sector. He is the President of EREC’s member association, the European Renewable Energies Federation (EREF), the voice of independent producers of energy from renewable sources, and he is a Board Member and the spokesperson for European and International Affairs of the German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE), the national umbrella orginsation of the renewable energy sector.
He is closely engaged in European policy development for renewable energies in the European Union as well as in his home country, keeping close contacts with government representatives, parliamentarians, European Commission and other stakeholders. He is convinced that a complete shift of our energy system to renewable energy is necessary for the sake of energy security and climate protection and that it is technically and economically feasible – much faster and less costly than supporters and beneficiaries of conventional and nuclear energy are trying to make believe. Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes has delivered speeches and presentations and participated in panel discussions all over the world – on behalf of the organisations he is representing or advising, and as an independent consultant providing policy advice and knowledge about sustainable renewable energy development and policies for scaling up renewables on local, national, regional and global level in order to facilitate their becoming the mainstream energy sources already in the near future.
Representing EREC he is a member of the Renewable Energy Industry Advisory Board (RIAB) of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and a member of the Steering Committee of the global Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21) with headquarters in Paris (France), which was founded as an outcome of the first “International Renewable Energy Conference” (IREC), the renewables2004-conference in Bonn. He is also a member of the WREN-Council, the advisory structure of theWorld Renewable Energy Network/Congress.
Before engaging with the renewable energy sector in Germany and in Europe, from November 1998 to December 2005, Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes was a Director General in the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), in charge of renewable energies, climate protection and various other dossiers. As a representative of BMU, he was one of the two chairmen of the International Steering Committee preparing the first IREC, the renewables2004 in Bonn. After the conference, until he left the ministry at the end of 2005, he served as BMU’s representative and a founding co-chair and later a member of the Bureau of the Global Policy Network, now known as REN21.

Christine Lins was appointed as Executive Secretary of REN21, the Renewable Energy Policy Network of the 21st Century, in July 2011. REN21 is a global public-private multi-stakeholder network on renewable energy regrouping international organizations, governments, industry associations, science and academia as well as NGOs working in the field of renewable energy. REN21 has its headquarters at UNEP, the United Nations Environment Programme in Paris/France. Between 2001 and 2011, she served as Secretary General of the European Renewable Energy Council, the united voice of Europe’s renewable energy industry. She has more than 17 years of working experience in the field of renewable energy sources. Previously, she worked in a regional energy agency in Austria promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. Christine Lins holds a Masters degree in international economics and applied languages.

Dr. Jan Geiss is Secretary General of EUFORES – The European Forum for Renewable Energy Sources, a network of Members of the European Parliament and the EU28 national parliaments promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency policy and markets in the European Union. He has been running the Brussels based organisation since 2006. Before becoming the Secretary General, he was Policy Advisor and Managing Director of EUFORES. Since 2011, he is also the President of the Renewable Energy House in Brussels. Since 2012, he is a member of the Business Council of the German Foundation for the Environment. 1999–2012, he was Chair of the Board of the Sustainable Development Forum Germany. He holds a PhD in Political Science and Economics from the University of Passau, Germany in the field of “Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Service Contracting”. He finished his studies of International Cultural and Business Management in 1997.

Thorsten Müller is research director and chairman of the executive board of the Foundation on Environmental Energy Law (Stiftung Umweltenergierecht – SUER) in Würzburg (Germany). After studying lawfrom 1996 to 2001 inWürzburg and Salzburg (Austria) and a legal traineeship at the OLG Celle (higher regional court, Germany) he worked as counsel for the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety on 2003 and 2004-amendment of the Renewable Energies Act (EEG). Starting November 2004 he also worked as research assistant at the chair of Prof. Dr. Schulze-Fielitz for Public, Environmental and Administrative Law at the University of Würzburg. From 2006 to 2011 he was the head of the Forschungsstelle Umweltenergierecht (Research Centre for Energy and Environmental Law) in cooperation with the University of Würzburg. He published in legal journals and contributed to law commentaries and handbooks. He co-edits “Zeitschrift für Neues Energierecht – ZNER” (New Energy Law Journal), “Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review (RELP)” and “Schriften zum Umweltenergierecht” (Writings on Renewable Energy Law) published by Nomos-Verlag. His focus in legal research lies on European and national renewable energies law as well as energy efficiency law and the interactions between the different legal instruments. Repeatedly he acted as legal expert in hearings held by the German Bundestag as well as regional parliaments (Landtage) and governments.

Since 2010 Markus Kahles has been research assistant at the Foundation for Environmental Energy Law. His research focus lies on European renewable energies law in general and especially on state aid law and the law of free movement of goods. From 2004 to 2010 he studied law combined with accompanying studies in European law at the University of Würzburg (Germany) and the University of Bergen (Norway). At the moment he is doing his legal traineeship at the OLG Bamberg (higher regional court) and writing his doctoral thesis in the field of European renewable energy law.

Editorial Reviews

"…the discussion about EU energy policy beyond 2020 and up to 2050 has started. An in-depth analysis of this debate is what mostly concerns this book, as well as reviewing the 2020 policy framework, its implementation and its current chances of success. …Not an easy read, but this title holds valuable information from a renewables champion very much on the inside of European energy policymaking."
––Renewable UK, Autumn 2013

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