eBook

The book covers measuring techniques, interpretation methods, and the application of in-situ stress in engineering practice and geophysics, and is unique in that it aims to build new connections between traditional and geophysical methods. Must-have information for those academics and engineers interested in rock mechanics, geophysics, geology, and seismology.

The evaluation of in-situ rock stress is not only important in the exploration and engineering involving rock masses for mining, hydropower, tunneling, oil and gas production, and stone quarrying, but also in the geodynamics and earthquake prediction. The methods of determining these stresses for shallow crust in the engineering practice, including hydraulic fracture method, stress relief method, and acoustic emission method, have not developed substantially to satisfy the increasing utilization of rock masses. The geophysical methods for stresses determination of deep crust only determine the stress fields of deep crust qualitatively. Contributed by a group of leading experts from engineering and geophysical community, *Rock Stress and Earthquakes* addresses new developments in numerical modeling and advanced measuring techniques in engineering practices, and build new connections between traditional and geophysical methods, which will both benefit earthquake prediction based on the concept of the crustal stresses.

*Rock Stress and Earthquakes* reflects the developments in this area, covering measuring techniques, interpretation methods, and the application of in-situ stress in engineering practice and geophysics, and is of interest to academics and engineers in rock mechanics, geophysics, geology, and seismology.

Preface

Organization

*Keynote presentation*

Variability of in situ rock stress, J.A. Hudson & X.T. Feng

The effect of lithology, inhomogeneity, topography, and faults, on in situ stress measurements by hydraulic fracturing, and the importance of correct data interpretation and independent evidence in support of results, B.C. Haimson

How to generate the Final Rock Stress Model (FRSM) at a site or an area, O. Stephansson & A. Zang

Tunnel stability and in-situ rock stress, M. Lu, E. Grøv, K.H. Holmøy, N.Q. Trinh & T.E. Larsen

The recent tectonic stress districts and strong earthquakes in China, F.R. Xie, H.Y. Zhang &Y. Du

*Difficulties with hydraulic fracturing stress measurements and ways to overcome them*

Deep rock stress measurement by hydraulic fracturing method taking account of system compliance effect, T. Ito, T. Satoh & H. Kato

A hybrid method for constraining the in situ stress regime in deep vertical holes, B.C. Haimson

Modelling the effect of injection system compressibility and viscous fluid flow on hydraulic fracture breakdown pressure, A.P. Bunger, A. Lakirouhani & E. Detournay

Utilizing observations of borehole failure in deviated wellbores to constrain the full stress tensor in deep wells and mines: Application to two complex case studies, M.D. Zoback, P. Paul & A. Lucier

Determining the complete natural stress tensor from hydraulic tests: A case history in sedimentary rocks from the French Paris Basin, F.H. Cornet

Complete stress field determination in an inclined borehole at the Olkiluoto site, Finland: Joint inversion of hydraulic and en echelon data, D. Ask, F. Fontbonne & C. Brunet

Development of borehole-jack fracturing technique and in situ measurements, T. Yokoyama, K. Ogawa, O. Sano, A. Hirata & Y. Mizuta

Downhole microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing: A full-waveform approach for complete moment tensor inversion and stress estimation, F. Song, M.N. Toksöz & J. Li

*Method and theory of in-situ stress measurement*

Application of a downward compact conical-ended borehole overcoring technique to orthotropic rock, K. Sakaguchi, J. Usami & K. Matsuki

A critical laboratory investigation on validity evaluation of undercoring method for in situ stress determination, M. Moosavi & N. Ghavami

Estimation of minimum insitu stress by hydrojacking method case study of Siah bisheh power plant, M.R. Shahverdiloo

Cross-sectional Borehole Deformation Method (CBDM) for measurement of rock stress change, Y. Obara, T. Shin, T. Yoshinaga, K. Sugawara & S.S. Kang

New development of in-situ stress measurement in Chinese mines, M. Cai, L. Qiao, C. Li, H. Ji, Z. Tan, F. Ren & H. Peng

New method to detect the induced hydraulic fractures, J. Mao & C. Wang

In-situ stress measurements in underground coal mines and study on stress fields, H. Kang, L. Si & X. Zhang

Accuracy assessment and reliability analysis in the intelligent data analysis system for the piezomagnetic stress meter, L. Jia, C. Wang, Q. Chen & Z. Jiang

Impact of epoxy glue curing time on the quality of overcoring stress measurements in low-temperature environments, F. Lahaie, Y. Gunzburger, A. Ben Ouanas, J.D. Barnichon, P. Bigarré & J.P. Piguet

The hydraulic fracture opening pressure multiple test for the stress state measurement in permeable rock, V.A. Pavlov, P.A. Martynuk & S.V. Serdyukov

Stress measurement and rock excavation at Skaland mine, Norway, N.Q. Trinh, T. Larsen, S.N. Sand & A. Myrvang

Correlation between the stability of surrounding rocks and ratio of rock breakdown pressure to geostress, H. Li, Q.M. An, L.L. Fan, H.Z. Wang, F.Q. Liu & J.Y. Dong

Strength and failure of rock due to hydraulic fracture, M.Q. You

Acoustic emission signature of different oriented sandstone specimens, W. Nie, M.C. He & Z.Y. Zhao

In-situ stress measurement based on acoustic emission in combination with core orientation techniques, Y. Li, L. Qiao & Z.L. Sui

Applications of anelastic strain measurements in scientific ocean deep drillings, W.R. Lin, T.B. Byrne, A. Tsutsumi, Y. Yamamoto, A. Sakaguchi, Y. Yamamoto & C.D. Chang

Experimental study on load/unload response ratio and Kaiser effect when rocks under cycling load, J.P. Liu, Y.J. Yang & Y.H. Li

A comparison of rock stresses measured by WASM AE with results from other techniques that measure the complete rock stress tensor, C.R. Windsor, E. Villaescusa & L.A. Machuca

In-situ stress measurements using oriented core – A comparison of uniaxial vs triaxial Acoustic Emission results, E. Villaescusa, L. Machuca, X. Lei & T. Funatsu

An estimation of the absolute stress value for the Landers earthquake source region, Y.G. Wan, S.Z. Sheng, T.L. Lin & Y.M. Wu

Stress inversion from focal mechanism solution of Bam earthquake aftershocks (Iran, 2003), V. Fattahpour & M. Moosavi

A review of the new understanding of fluid-rock deformation in the crack-critical earth, S. Crampin & Y. Gao

The influence of rock anisotropy on the stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole, J.Y. Tian, H.Q. Wang & Y.B. Zhao

The volume borehole deformation observation in China, H.L. Li

Relationship between rock stress and failure of underground cavern’s wall rock at river valley with ‘V’ shape, Q. Jiang, X.T. Feng, D.P. Xu & C.P. Shi

Static vertical pendulum – apparatus for in-situ relative stress measurement, L. Neumann & P. Kalenda

Calculating tectonic stress coefficient of formation with rock mechanics parameters and fracturing work data, L. Ren, J.Z. Zhao, Y.Q. Hu & W.C. Zhang

Inversion analysis of initial stress field based on modified particle swarm optimization, Y.F. Cao, F.L. He, K.Q. Li, H.Q. Han, S.R. Xie & H.Yan

A mechanism and characteristic analysis of rock core discing in the in-situ stress survey on deep coalmine, Y.D. Jiang, T. Wang, L.H. Hu & S.P. Tian

Comparison of two complimentary measurements: Sonic Fast-Shear Azimuth and breakout directions for stress estimation, R. Prioul & H.T. Sun

Quality assurance system for borehole strain observation, Z.S. Zhang, H.Y. Lu, Z.Y. Yang, Z.P. Wang, Z.R. Gui & L. Cai

Analysis of in-situ stress field by using a visual BP neural network, Y.S. Li, K. Ai & Y.K. Liu

Study on characteristics of in-situ stress affected by faults, J.M.Yin, X.F. Guo & Y.F. Liu

*Engineering application of in-situ stress*

Modeling of landslides hazards induced by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake using ground motion parameters, X.Y. Wang & Z.L. Han

Natural stress tensor field at the Porce III hydroelectric project, Colombia-South America, L.O. Suárez-Burgoa, A.P. Assis, A.J. Castro-Caicedo & A.A. Navarro-Montoya

Research on production increasing mechanism by slotting in low permeability oilfield, Y.L. Zhang & Y.L. Ma

Simulation research on in-situ rock stress of mining coal in gently-dipping close-range low coal seam, T. Tian, Y.L. Zhang & Y.L. Ma

Features of in situ stress in a crystallized batholith and its influence on the rockbursts of tunnels, J.Q. Ma

Inversion of marine in-situ stress of northeast Sichuan and its influence on horizontal well completion optimization, K. Lan, M.G. Liu, Y.M. Xiong & K.X. Liu

Numerical simulation on in-situ rock stress of exploitation process through injection of heat into low permeability coal seam, Y. Cheng, Y.L. Zhang &Y.L. Ma

Cable truss support on a large span set-up coal entry based on ground stress measurement, X.K. Zhang, F.L. He, H.Z. Yang, S.R. Xie, H.B. Li & K.Q. Li

Estimation of in-situ stress state at the maximum depth of the Jinping tunnels, China, C.Q. Zhang, X.T. Feng, H. Zhou, C.S. Zhang & S.Y. Wu

In-situ stress measurement and rockburst possibility in deep tunnel at a hydro-power station, L. Bao & S. Zhao

Segment pre-blasting application on 52 m sublevel caving of steep and thick coal seam under complex conditions, S.J. Miao & X.P. Lai

Failure mechanism and supporting strategy of deep rock roadway under high ground stress, Z.J. Li & G. Qi

Studies for rockburst prediction in the Carrara Marble (Italy), M. Coli, E. Livi, P. Berry, A. Bandini & X.N. Jia

The in situ stress state of Kailuan mining area, J. Han, P.T. Zhang, X.G. Tian, S. Sun, H.W. Zhang & T.W. Lan

Floor heaving failure mechanism and stability controlling on the deep large-span tunnel, G.G. Qiao & Z.Z. Li

Mechanism and support measures of floor heave mainly caused by horizontal extrusion stress in soft rock roadway, X.J. Yang, F.Q. Wang, Z.B. Guo, Q.Y. Han, Z. Zhang & L.P. Han

Analysis of rock burst and crustal stress measurement in a hydropower’s traffic tunnel at ganzi prefecture, Sichuan Province, L. Ding

Analysis on landslide catastrophe mechanism and landslip forecasting for open-pit coal mine, Y.B. Zhang, Z.J. Li & Z.Q. Kang

In-situ stress measurement and acoustic emission instrumentation for rock burst control in a deep tunnel, B. Liu, C.J. Song, N. Tian, H. Zhong & B. Cao

Measurements and research of in-situ stress near the fault structure filed, C.H. Zhou, J.M. Yin & G.Q. Xiao

Investigation on the mechanism of water inrush in deep mining by in-situ stress measurement, Y.D. Jiang, Y.K. Lv, Y.X. Zhao & L.L. Zhu

Numerical stimulation of minimum permitted operating pressure of natural gas storage in bedded salt, T.T. Wang, X.Z. Yan, X.J. Yang & H.L. Yang

A pseudo-3D model with 2D flow of hydraulic fracture propagation in thin interbedded sandstone reservoir, X.J. Yang, T.T. Wang, X.Z. Yan & X. Wang

Sectional optimization research of water flooding with horizontal wells in heterogeneous reservoir based on logging information 435

T.T. Jiang, X.Z. Yan & X.J. Yang

A method to determine the negative pressure difference and the drilling fluid density in coal-bed methane underbalanced drilling, Q.Y. Wen, X.J. Yang, X.Z. Yan & G.S. Li

Classification method study of joint coal fracture based on Hoek-Brown criterion, L.S. Zhang, X.Z.Yan & X.J. Yang

In-situ stress field inverse analysis technology study of low permeability reservoir based on multi-well constraint, X.Z. Yan & X.J. Yang

Borehole stability study of coal seam based on orthotropic coal cleats model, B.H. Wang, X.Z. Yan, X.J. Yang & H.L. Yang

The function and significance of in-situ stress measurement in the research of strong earthquake prediction, Q. Guo, L. Ding, C. Wang & Y. Zhang

Key technologies research of natural gas storage construction in salt rock formation, Z.L. Tian, T.T. Wang & G. Zhang

Study on relationship between deformation failure of surrounding rock and in-situ stress in deep-buried tunnel, F. Jing, J.M. Yinn & H. Chen

Measurement and numerical simulation of the stress relaxation zone on the roadway face in coal mine, B.S. Nie, S.R. Zhai, R.M. Zhang, C. Jia & J.F. Zhang

Measurements and application of in-situ stress and related rock mechanics parameters at a new type of diversion hydroelectric project in Southwest China, S.X. Yang, C.H. Wang, R. Yao & Q. Mi

Study on the relationship between in-situ stress and the rupture of mine shaft, R.H. Sun & W.P. Li

Application of a new stress measurement device in underground marble quarrying, a case study, G. Iabichino & M. Cravero

Room-and-pillar mine workings design in high level horizontal stress conditions. Case of study from the Polish underground copper mines, W. Pytel

Hydraulic jacking tests in crystalline rocks for hydroelectric projects in Quebec, Canada, M. Quirion & J.-P. Tournier

*Numerical modeling*

Development of method for evaluation of three dimensional distribution of in situ stress state and preliminary estimation of applicability, T. Tanno, T. Hirano & H. Matsui

Dynamic mechanisms of the 2008 M_{S} 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, China: New insights from numerical simulation by Finite Element Methods, S.B. Zhu

The study on shield support system in longwall mining, M.M. Hosseini & N. Hosseini

Numerical stability analysis of tectonically disturbed and lithologically varied rock masses of collapsed pressure shaft slope in Siah Bishe Dam, North Iran, H. Hassani, M. Farokhnia, H. Sarkheil & M. Rahimi Dizaji

Back regression analysis on initial geostress field of Wendeng Pumped storage power station, N. Liu & C.S. Zhang

Comparative analysis on mining-induced stress between in-situ observation and numerical simulation in deep mining, K.Yang, G.X. Xie & J.C. Chang

Relationship between instantaneous strength in laboratory and creep strength by numerical simulation of soft rock in deep site, C.X. Liu, J.D. He, J.W. Zhang & H.Y. Tian

Research on the energy dissipation and stress distribution characteristics of the excavated circular tunnel under high stress conditions, S.R. Wang, H.Q Zhang, P.P. Liu & H.H. Jia

Numerical simulation research on seismic activity in Yunnan area, Y.J. Li, L.W. Chen, J.Y. Ye & Z.M. Zhan

Modeling of shallow spallation of rock slope under dynamic loading, T. Xu, J. Zhao, G.F. Zhao, L.Yuan & P. Liu

Analysis of influencing factors in response spectrum of underground structures using numerical method, M. Serati & M. Moosavi

Stability analysis of slope under mining for resident ore body outside the open-pit, Y.B. Zhang, D.Q. Gan & C. Chen

Brittle failure due to excavation induced stress change – a case study of Jinping II Hydropower Station, C. Cheng & X.M. Sun

Numerical simulation of the effect of geostress on large deformations of deep soft rock tunnels, M.C. He, H.Y. Guo, X. Chen, P.Y. Liu & S.Z. Xi

Design of barrier pillars in Tabas underground Coal Mine (Iran) using 3D numerical modeling, M. Goodarzi, F.S. Rassouli & M. Yavari

Influences on in-situ stress distribution and surrounding rock mass stability of underground cavern groups under different slope inclinations, L.G. Wang, W.S. Zhu, K. Zhou & X.L. Xin

Research on in-situ stress field simulation of coal and gas outburst mining area with 3D finite element method, J. Xu, S.J. Peng, H.W. Yang, D.D. Zhang & D. Liu

Three-dimensional stability analysis of stratified rock mass tunnel based on anisotropic theory, Y. Wang, J.M. Yin & G.Q. Xiao

Coupled hydromechanical behavior of jointed rocks in the study of HTPF tests, N. Valinezhad & H. Ghasemzadeh

Application of a global interpretation model for assessment of the stress field for engineering purposes, L.N. Lamas, J. Muralha & B. Figueiredo

Second fine inversion of regional in-situ stress field considering the excavation disturbance effects of pilot tunnel, G.Q. Chen, G.S. Su, T.B. Li & H.M. Ma

Study on the coupling system of high prestress cable truss and surrounding rock on a coal roadway, F.L. He, D.P. Ying, H. Yan, H.Q. Han & K.Q. Li

Detecting non elastic behavior from strain recovery curves, R. Corthésy & M.H. Leite

3-D Modeling of bedding slip for coal-seam with outburst proneness, X.B. Deng, G. Xu, P. Liang, X.T. Li & Y.Q. Ma

Comparison of the 1999 Chi-Chi Mw 7.6 Earthquake and the 2008 Wenchuan M_{S} 8.0 Earthquake, Y. Liu & S.B. Zhu

The method of bound regression analyse of the initial geostress field and its application, S.X. Yang, Z.Y. Xu, M.Z. Bai & R.Yao

Prediction of the time dependent in-situ pressure of soft rock using multiple regression approach, artificial neural network, and adaptive network-fuzzy inference system, R. Doostmohammadi & M. Moosavi

Feasible study of the application of stress measurement in mining engineering to seismic monitoring system, E.R. Xue, J.H. Guo, Y.C. Wang & H.J. Wang

*Active tectonics and crustal dynamics *

Characteristics of tectonic stress in the east of Tibetan Plateau and its neighboring region inferred from in-situ stress measurement, R. Yao, S.X. Yang, Y.Z. Lu, X.F. Cui, Q.C. Chen & Q. Mi

Recent tectonic stress field zoning in Tienshan area and its dynamic genesis, H.Y. Zhang, F.R. Xie, X.F. Cui, L.M. Hu & D. Su

Present-day stress state in southeast Korea with an emphasis on effects of regional-scale faults, C. Chang & T.S. Kang

Background stress state estimated from 2008 Wenchuan earthquake sequence, Y.Q. Zhang, F.R. Xie & Susanna J. Gross

The new-born fault in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan, China: A case in Qingping town, J.J. Ren, C.W. Mao, S.M. Zhang, G.H. Chen & X.W. Xu

Active model, deformation characteristics and dynamic mechanism of the Yingxiu – Nanba segment in the M_{s} 8.0 seismic fault, H.F. Lu, S.M. Zhang, B.Q. Ma, Z.H. Hou, Z.T. He, J.X. Zhao & J.Y. Wang

The research of the cumulative vertical slip of the faults which caused the M_{s} 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, L. Wang, Q.J. Tian, K. Hao, B.Q. Ma, S.M. Zhang & J.Q. Yu

Numerical simulation of earthquake mechanism based on stick-slip behavior of faults, M. Sasani & M.Yazdani

3D Mohr diagram to explain reactivation of pre-existing planes due to changes in applied stresses, S.-S. Xu, A.F. Nieto-Samaniego & S.A. Alaniz-Álvarez

InSAR measurement of fault activity in Red River Fault Zone, L.Y. Hu, J.F. Zhang, X.Q. Shang, H.F. Zhou, C.L. Li & J.P. Muller

Lithospheric thermo-mechanical strength map of China, Y. Wang & S. Cheng 751

*Stress-strain observation and earthquake prediction*

In-situ stress measurement is an important approach to realize earthquake prediction – developing J.S. Lee’s scientific ideas on earthquake prediction, F. Li

Features and mechanism of coseismic surface ruptures by Wenchuan earthquake of May 12, 2008, Z.Q. Yue

Yielding in intact rock at different scales, H. Masoumi, K.J. Douglas & S.M. Seyed Alizadeh

The design of strain measuring sensor of geophysical observations in deep boreholes, H.L. Li

Development of Real-Time Soil Deformation Monitoring System (RSDMS), M.A. Mohd Din & L. Kang Wei

Experimental study of the temperature-pressure effect on gas transport in peridotite sample from Sudbury Basin, Canada, C.G. Wang, X.H. Zhang & H.J. Zhang

The design of 3-component volume borehole strainmeter of type TJ-3, X.B. Ma, H.L. Li, J.J. Ma & K.Z. Su

Static vertical pendulum – observations of anomalous tilt before earthquakes (case study), P. Kalenda & L. Neumann

Strains recorded by using seismic acquisition unit, X.H. Yang, S.X. Yang, Y. Wang, G.H. Zhang, F.S. Liu &Y.Z. Liu

A new type of multi-component borehole instrument for continuous monitoring of crustal deformation, Z.X. Ouyang

Using fiber Bragg grating in geothermal monitoring, K. Li, Z.A. Zhou, A.C. Liu, X.P. Ye, H.X. Li & D.Q. Cheng

PS InSAR time-series analysis for monitoring ground subsidence, B. Liu, Y. Luo, J.F. Zhang, L.X. Gong & W.L. Jiang

Application of sand layer strain based on granule medium to earthquake prediction, A.X. Wu

Confined well water level: An approach to measure seismic induced strain changes on site, F.Q. Huang, Y. Zhang, G.J. Lai & R. Yan

Rock failure and the evolution of pre-failure signals, F.T. Freund, R.P. Dahlgren & J.J. Chu

Softening rocks with stress-activated electric current, F.T. Freund, S.A. Hoenig, A. Braun, R.P. Dahlgren, M. Momayez & J.J. Chu

Measuring relative ground stress variations using piezomagnetic stressometers, X.N. Huang, L.J. Wang & L.M. Ge

Three-dimensional measurement of a deep-seated RZB-type integrated wideband deformation observing system, Z. Chen, T. Li, Z.X. Ouyang, L.H. Wu, Y.J. Li & J.Y. Ning

RZB-type capacitive borehole inclinometer, L.H. Wu, Z. Chen, T. Li & Z.X. Ouyang

Incoherent hydro-frac results & its implications in design of crude oil storage caverns, M.R. Saharan, A. Sinha, K. Srinivasan, V. V. Nagada, S. Panda, H.S. Mitri, F. Rummel & U. Weber

Influence of high horizontal stress regime on the shape of LPG caverns – A case study, M.R. Saharan, A. Sinha & H.S. Mitri

Author index