Geological Engineering

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Features

  • Covers the fundamentals of soil mechanics, rock mechanics, and hydrogeology
  • Examines methods for site investigations, rock mass characterization, and engineering geology mapping
  • Explores applications, including foundations, slope stability, tunneling, dams, reservoirs, and earth works
  • Explains how to prevent and mitigate geohazards such as landslides and earthquake hazards

CD-ROM with all illustrations available upon qualifying course adoption

Summary

A thorough knowledge of geology is essential in the design and construction of infrastructures for transport, buildings and mining operations; while an understanding of geology is also crucial for those working in urban, territorial and environmental planning and in the prevention and mitigation of geohazards.

Geological Engineering provides an interpretation of the geological setting, integrating geological conditions into engineering design and construction, and provides engineering solutions that take into account both ground conditions and environment.

This textbook, extensively illustrated with working examples and a wealth of graphics, covers the subject area of geological engineering in four sections:

  • Fundamentals: soil mechanics, rock mechanics and hydrogeology
  • Methods: site investigations, rock mass characterization and engineering geological mapping
  • Applications: foundations, slope stability, tunnelling, dams and reservoirs and earth works
  • Geohazards: landslides, other mass movements, earthquake hazards and prevention and mitigation of geological hazards

As well as being a textbook for graduate and postgraduate students and academics, Geological Engineering serves as a basic reference for practicing engineering geologists and geological and geotechnical engineers, as well as civil and mining engineers dealing with design and construction of foundations, earth works and excavations for infrastructures, buildings, and mining operations.

Table of Contents

PART I. FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1 - Introduction to Geological Engineering
1.1 Definition and Importance of Geological Engineering
1.2 The Geological Environment and its Relation with Engineering
1.3 Geological Factors and Geotechnical Problems
1.4 Methods and Applications in Engineering Geology
1.5 Information Sources in Engineering Geology
1.6 How this Book is Structured
Recommended Reading/References

Chapter 2 – Soil Mechanics and Engineering Geology of Sediments
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Soil Description and Classification
2.3 Flow of Water through Soils
2.4 Effective Stress
2.5 Consolidation and Compressibility
2.6 Shear Strength of Soils
2.7 Influence of Mineralogy and Fabric on the Geotechnical Properties of Soils
2.8 Engineering Geology Characteristics of Sediments
2.9 Problematic Soils
Recommended Reading/References

Chapter 3 – ROCK MECHANICS
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Physical and Mechanical Properties of Rocks
3.3 Stress and Strain in Rocks
3.4 Strenght and Deformability of Intact Rock
3.5 Discontinuities
3.6 Strenght and Deformability of Rock Masses
3.7 In situ  Stress
3.8 Rock Mass Classifications
Recommended Reading/References

Chapter 4 - HYDROGEOLOGY
4.1 Hydrogeological Behaviour of Soils and Rocks
4.2 Hydrogeological Parameters
4.3 Flow. Darcy's Law and Fundamental Flow Equations in Porous Media
4.4 Evaluation Methods for Hydrogeological Parameters
4.5 Solution Methods
4.6 Chemical Properties of Water
Recommended Reading/References

PART II. METHODS

Chapter 5 – SITE INVESTIGATIONS
5.1 Planning and Design
5.2 Preliminary Investigations
5.3 Engineering Geophysics
5.4 Boreholes, Trial Pits, Trenches and Sampling
5.5 In situ Tests
5.6 Geotechnical Instrumentation
Recommended Reading/References

Chapter 6 - ROCK MASS DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISATION
6.1 Methodology
6.2 Description and Zoning
6.3 Intact Rock Characterisation
6.4 Description of Discontinuities
6.5 Rock Mass Parameters
6.6 Rock Mass Classification and Characterisation
Recommended Reading/References

Chapter 7 - ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL MAPPING
7.1 Definition
7.2 Types of Maps
7.3 Mapping Methods
7.4 Data Collection
7.5 Applications
Recommended Reading/References

PART III. APPLICATIONS

Chapter 8 - FOUNDATIONS
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Shallow Foundations
8.3 Deep Foundations
8.4 Foundations in Rock
8.5 Foundations in Complex Geological Conditions
8.6 Site Investigation
Recommended Reading/References

Chapter 9 - SLOPES
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Site Investigations
9.3 Factors Influencing Slope Stability
9.4 Types of Slope Failure
9.5 Stability Analysis
9.6 Stabilization Measures
9.7 Monitoring and Control
9.8 Slope Excavation
Recommended Reading/References

Chapter 10 - TUNNELS
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Site Investigation
10.3 Influence of Geological Conditions
10.4 Geomechanical Design Parameters
10.5 Rock Mass Classifications for Tunneling
10.6 Tunnel Support Design using Rock Mass Classifications
10.7 Excavability
10.8 Tunnel Excavation and Support Methods in Rock
10.9 Tunnel Excavation and Support Methods in Soil
10.10 Geological Engineering during Tunnel Construction
Recommended Reading/References

Chapter 11 - DAMS AND RESERVOIRS
11.1. Introduction
11.2 Types of Dams and Auxiliary Structures
11.3 Site Investigation
11.4 Engineering Geology Criteria for Dam Selection
11.5 Geological Materials for Dam Construction
11.6 Reservoir Water Tightness
11.7 Permeability of Dam Foundations
11.8 Reservoir Slope Stability
11.9 Engineering Geological Conditions for Dam Foundations
11.10 Seismic Actions and Induced Seismicity
Recommended Reading/References

Chapter 12 - EARTH STRUCTURES
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Design Methodology
12.3 Materials
12.4 Implementation and Control
12.5 Embankments on Soft Soils
12.6 Embankments on Slopes
Recommended Reading/References

PART IV. GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS

Chapter 13 - LANDSLIDES AND OTHER MASS MOVEMENTS
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Slope Movements
13.3 Investigation of Landslides
13.4 Corrective Measures
13.5 Collapse and Subsidence
13.6 Prevention of Risks from Mass Movements
Recommended Reading/References

Chapter 14 - SEISMIC HAZARD
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Faults and Earthquakes
14.3 Seismicity Studies
14.4 Seismic Hazard Analysis
14.5 Seismic Site Response
14.6 Ground Effects Induced by Earthquakes
14.7 Applications to Geological Engineering
Recommended Reading/References

Chapter 15 - PREVENTION OF GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS
15.1 Geological Hazards
15.2 Hazard, Risk and Vulnerability
15.3 Safety Criteria in Geological Engineering
15.4 Prevention and Mitigation of Geological Hazards
15.5 Hazard and Risk Maps
Recommended Reading/References

Appendix A: Charts for Circular and Wedge Failure Analysis
Appendix B: Pressure Units Conversion Chart
Appendix C: Symbols and Acronyms
Appendix D: List of Boxes
Appendix E: Permissions to Reproduce Figures and Tables

Index

Author Bio(s)

Luis I. González de Vallejo; Professor of Geological Engineering at the Complutense University of Madrid, where he is also Director of the MSc Courses in Geological Engineering. He has dedicated his professional career in geological engineering to consulting, research and teaching, and he has conducted a large number of geological and geotechnical investigations for the design and construction of tunnels, dams and foundations in Spain and Central and South America, including landslide and earthquake hazard analysis, large excavations and site assessment for nuclear power plants and radioactive waste disposal.

He has written over 120 papers in journals and proceedings as well as five books. Associate Editor of Soils and Rocks and Member of the Editorial Board of several scientific journals, he has been invited to present the 2nd Mariano Ruiz Vazquez Lecture, at the Academy of Engineering of Mexico, in 2007, and the XXVII Manuel Rocha Lecture, at the Portuguese Geotechnical Society, in 2010.

Mercedes Ferrer; Senior Research Officer at the Geological Survey of Spain and Associate Lecturer on Rock Mechanics at the Complutense University of Madrid, where she graduated in Geological Sciences and obtained her doctorate for her research on the deformability and failure mechanisms of soft rocks. She has carried out research projects on geological hazards in Spain, Italy and Central and South America, particularly on landslides and geo-hazard mapping for urban planning, mitigation and prevention purposes.

She has written over 100 papers and research reports on geological hazards, landslides and slope stability. At present she is leading a research project on the causes and failure mechanisms of the mega-rockslides of volcanic islands flanks.

Editorial Reviews

Looking through the book and thinking of the huge effort required to obtain all the information, followed by processing it so that the ideas and data can be presented with such clarity, and then to actually write the book and prepare the self-explanatory diagrams is truly more than impressive: it is an outstanding achievement. Another excellent feature is that it is simultaneously an undergraduate, post-graduate, and practical book.
—John A. Hudson, Emeritus Professor, Imperial College, UK;  Past-President, International Society for Rock Mechanics, 2007-2011

With Geological Engineering Luis González de Vallejo and Mercedes Ferrer succeeded in offering a standard work, of interest for a wide group of users, in a broad range of geologically differing areas, as a support in the application of geology to research, design and construction in civil engineering.
—Floris Schokking, GeoConsult B.V., Haarlem

This beautifully illustrated text book has everything an engineering geologist and those with a wide interest in civil engineering could wish for. The content of Geological Engineering is a suitable reminder of the huge range of disciplines and engineering problems that are expected to be tackled during the career of experienced international consultants, by international civil engineering design offices, by earth science researchers, and by graduate students starting out in this fascinating but challenging major branch of science and engineering. All the back-ground needed for those engaged in foundations, slopes, tunnels, dams and reservoirs and earth structures can be found here.
Undoubtedly, it is going to prove to be one of the very best broad-reference books for a very large number of educators, geologists, engineering geologists, soil mechanics and rock mechanics specialists, and hydro-geologists. It is truly an impressive production.
Congratulations to the authors, to the editors, and to the producers of this landmark publication.
—Dr. Nick Barton

The many illustrations enable this text to provide a unique means of communication to its readers, unmatched by other texts in the field, because they impart a sense of the scale and variability that have to be addressed when working in the subject. This is a contribution to geotechnical engineering that will  support and improve the teaching and application of Engineering Geology for years to come.
—Michael H. de Freitas, Reader Emeritus in Engineering Geology, Imperial College, London, UK

Vallejo and Ferrer (2011) have come forth with a basic book defining the 90-year emerged body of knowledge with which every graduate geological engineer should be familiar.
—Allen W. Hatheway in Environmental & Engineering Geoscience, Vol. XVIII, No. 2, May 2012, pp. 209-215