While residual stress can be a problem in many industries and lead to early failure of component, it can also be introduced deliberately to improve lifetimes. Knowledge of the residual stress state in a component can be critical for quality control of surface engineering processes or vital to performing an accurate assessment of component life under fatigue loading.
Neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction have emerged as leading techniques for stress analysis, as they can penetrate many millimetres or centimetres into components, allowing nondestructive measurement of the internal strains. Both methods require the use of costly facility-based equipment, but great advantages are obtained from the ability to probe the stress state deep below a specimen's surface.
Analysis of Residual Stress by Diffraction Using Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation gives an overview of the principles of these techniques and examples of their applications to a range of materials and engineering problems. It contains 20 chapter contributed by leading international experts in residual stress analysis, who explore the theoretical basis of stress analysis by diffraction methods, the practical implementation of the methods, and examples of key applications. The applications discussed include the determination of internal stresses in weldments, in composite materials, following shot peening, and in ceramics.
This book will be useful for engineers and scientists who work in any field where residual stresses are of importance, and for anyone involved with the application of neutron or synchrotron radiation for stress management. As the techniques become a basic component of the measurement toolkit for stress analysis, an appreciation of the practicalities and limitations of these methods in practice will be important throughout a range of engineering and scientific fields.
SECTION 1: GENERAL APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRON AND SYNCHROTRON RADIATION TO MATERIALS RESEARCH
The use of neutrons for materials characterization, C.H. de Novion
The use of synchrotron radiation for materials research, C. Riekel
SECTION 2: METHODS AND PROBLEMS IN RESIDUAL STRESS DETERMINATION BY DIFFRACTION
Calculation of residual stress from measured strains, A. Lodini
Characterization of macrostresses, R.A. Winholtz
Study of Second and Third Order Stresses, J.M. Sprauel
The effect of texture on residual stress measurement and interpretation, T.Holden
Anisotropy of lattice strain response, T. Lorentzen
SECTION 3: MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
Neutron diffraction using a constant wavelength, L. Pintschovius
Neutron pulsed source instrumentation, M.W. Johnson & M.R. Daymond
Use of synchrotron X-ray radiation for stress measuremen, P.J. Withers
The use of neutron transmission for materials analysis, H.G. Priesmeyer
SECTION 4: AREAS OF STUDY
Strain mapping, P.J. Webster
Study of stress gradients using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, A. Pyzalla & W. Reimers
Near-surface stress measurement using neutron diffraction, L. Edwards
SECTION 5: APPLICATIONS
Shot Peening, A. Ezeilo
Composite Materials, M.E. Fitzpatrick
Residual stress analysis in mono-crystals using capillary optics, W. Reimers
Neutron residual stress measurement in welds, S. Spooner
Materials for nuclear fusion applications, R. Coppola & C. Nardi
Residual stresses in ceramic materials, R.I. Todd